The values of еffective rate constants of microorganisms destruction (kd) were compared, depending on the diameter of cells and gas nature bubbling under cavitation conditions. The efficiency of cell destruction under Ar/US is larger by 2–2.5 times compared to He/US, O2/US and CO2/US. Yeast cells were destroyed faster than bacteria (kd (yeast cells) >> kd (bacteria cells)) that is explained by the cells size. The cell stability under cavitational conditions is reversely proportional to the cell diameter.
The disinfection of water from Diplococcus, S.lutea, B.cereus, and Ps.fluorescens bacteria types and the yeast Sacch.cerevisiae via the joint action of gas/US has been investigated. The investigated microorganisms were identified in natural water and wastewater in dominant amounts. The relative ranges of effective cell destruction by combined gas/US action have been established. The most efficient microorganism destruction has been obtained using Ar/US compared to Не/US, СО2/US and О2/US and is accounted for by those gas properties able to affect sonochemical activity.
The influence of stabilizers – hydrogen donors – on the processes of thermooxidative destruction of pitch-based polymer has been investigated. It is shown that Irganox has not stabilizing effect on pitch-based polymer and melamine slightly retards the destructive process. A mixture of melamine and Irganox exhibits synergetic stabilizing effect and at the optimum ratio it can be used to prevent unwanted thermooxidative processes during pitch-based polymer preparation.
The project of the production house features the design of concrete roof. The roof is composed of typical precast reinforced concrete beams: single-slope (for ending spans) and double-slope (for middle span). The beam types are БО9 and БД9 accordingly, spanning over 9.0 m, designed for a typical ПК-01-05 series “Reinforced precast concrete load bearing structure for roofing with rolled-on surface” (issue 1 – beams). The article presents the results of collapsed reinforced concrete roof beam exploration.
At present, mechanical, chemical, biochemical and physicochemical methods of cleaning are developed and efficiently used to protect water bodies from sewage pollution. The methods of biochemical wastewater purification from organic contaminants with the use of activated sludge have received the highest recognition. Getting of additional nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) and other trophic precursors into the aquatic ecosystem directly leads to immediate biohydrogenase reaction of increase in the number and biomass of the primary producers of organic matter.
On the basis of a thorough analysis of scientific papers highlighted the problem of deviations in the legal system of social and cultural change. It was found that the phenomenon of deviance ambivalent nature and can mean both negative and positive social change. In the scientific literature rejection divided into primary and secondary. Those terms that society is negligible, considered primary, and subjects who commits them, do not qualify as devianta because they do not violate social norms.
It has been studied an effect of ratio between arene and alkene organic compounds, as components of olefin production wastewaters, and sodium hypochlorite, as liquid waste of caustic soda and chlorine synthesis, on their interaction. The organics total content was expressed by a value of chemical oxygen demand. A fundamental possibility of the mutual neutralization was confirmed. Use of a cavitation field significantly reduces duration of the process and the ratio between sodium hypochlorite and organic compounds.
The nature of the experimental model – beams’ destruction with damaged shelf is examined at the article. Studies conducted to study the effect of beam damage on residual bearing capacity.
Kineticі of microorganisms accumulation (the first stage) and destruction (the second stage) in water dispersion in the air atmosphere and at bubbling of oxygen, argon and helium has been investigated. The accumulation of microorganism takes place in oxygen and in the air atmosphere at the first stage. The microorganisms destruction was observed at bubbling of the system by argon, helium during the whole process, however, in the air atmosphere and oxygen – in the second stage.
Decomposition of starch grains in water dispersion and destruction of starch macromolecules in water solutions at acoustic cavitation has been investigated. Kinetics of this process is described by the first order process. Based on experimental data the rate constants have been found. Mathematical model based on found equations and experimental rate constants allows describing the kinetics of starch grains and starch macromolecules destruction in water as well as the change of relative viscosity of starch solution under ultrasonic treatment.