vertical refraction

Determination of plumb lines with using trigonometric levelling and GNSS measurements

The purpose of the study is to attempt to determine the deviation of vertical lines using trigonometric levelling and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNNS) measurements. For the last decades with the emergence of high-precision electronic theodolites and tacheometers, trigonometric levelling becomes a competitor of the geometric levelling of the II and III accuracy classes. This is primarily the definition of exceedances at distances up to 1–2 km for topographic surveying and the study of geodynamic processes in zones of the man-made load.

Investigation of refraction field over water surfaces

Aim. To investigate the possibilities of applying non-simultaneous reciprocal trigonometrical levelling over water surfaces while partially taking into account vertical refraction. Methodology. Experimental investigations of vertical refraction over water surfaces during day time on a plain and hilly terrains in summer. Non-simultaneous reciprocal observations were made over different water surfaces with the use of an automated electronic tachymeter.

Investigation of the accuracy of trigonometric leveling methods for the transmission of heights through water surfaces

Aims. The investigations of the transmission of elevations over water surfaces remain topical, so the first aim is to develop the technique of increasing the accuracy of the trigonometric instead of geometrical one. The second aim is to investigate the methods of trigonometric which can be used for the transmission of elevations over water surfaces with the use of modern devices. Methodology. Simultaneous and non-simultaneous reciprocal observations over different water surfaces have been carried out.

Investigation of the action of vertical refraction and precision trigonometric leveling over the water surface

In article described experimental researches of a vertical refraction on results of trigonometrically levelly above water lake surface of Beregany town discover laws of action of a refraction above lake. Methods of exception of influence of this factor are offered.