The word, being the unit of the lexical-semantic system, reflects the reality in those elements, which are collated with the features of the things, phenomena, processes, qualities, etc., denoted by the word. The word semantic aspect is a complicated phenomenon, because the language system reveals itself in such aspects of meanings, in which they differ from each other. That is why the components meaning and importance, this way or another, will depend on their place in the lexical-semantic paradigm, and also on the meanings of the words syntagmatically related to them. The systematic approach to terminology requires the separation of all the units composing the system and the relations between the words and groups of words on the basis of their meanings being common or opposite. That is why the terminology researchers (I. Kochan, S. Bulyk-Verkhola, Z. Kun’ch, B. Mykhaylyshyn, T. Mykhaylova, T. Pan’ko et al) justifiably assume that the terms have the same characteristics as other lexical units, genus-species relationships (hypero-hyponimy) in particular, as “the units of the specialized vocabulary instead of the word integrity with its phonetic, lexical-semantic, grammatical characteristics have the plane of expression and plane of content” [4, p. 40–41].
The presence of the genus-species relationships is explained by the fact that “terms as specially created nominative units are aimed not only to express the essence of the notion, but also to render the relationships among them – genus-species, part and the whole, proximity in space or time, etc” [3, p. 191], creating the notional system of each branch of knowledge, that is why genus-species relationships are the main factor of the words arrangement. During the terms creation the definitions of notions, which come into being as the result of the science continuous development, are defined more accurately owing to the expansion of the genus-species relationships.
The purpose of the article is to identify the regularities and peculiarities of the genus-species relationships of the compound terms with the seme ‘water’ in scientific-technical terminology.
In V. Ovcharenko’s opinion [2, p. 7], the genus-species relationship of the group of notions means their subordination to the common genus notion (hyperonym), in relation to which all of them are species (hyponyms). The species notion is similar to the genus notion regarding the main characteristics, but it has one or several additional species characteristics which make the contents more precise or limit the volume of the relative notion. Thus semantic components prevail greatly in the meanings of the words-hyponyms compared to the words-hyperonyms, because “the terms which express the notions of the species plane contain the entire complex of characteristic constituting the meaning of the term expressing the genus notion plus some additional meaning characteristics» [3, с. 192]. Respectively, the terms-hyponyms expressing the species notion have greater number of the differential semes than the genus term. For example, hyperonym water meter («the devise for measuring the water consumption» [1, p. 198]), which contains the integral seme ‘device’ and the differential seme ‘purpose’, in the terms-hyponyms vaned water meter, mills water meter acquires the differential seme ‘shape’; terms-hyponyms piston water meter, tubular water meter, turbine water meter, nutating-disk meter acquire the differential seme ‘design features; the term-hyponym velocity water meter acquires the differential seme ‘speed’; the terms-hyponyms water-discharge water meter, rotary water meter acquire the differential seme ‘function’.
The hyponyms of the hyperonym water supply («supply of water to the inhabitants, industrial objects, etc.» [1, p. 198]), which contains the integral seme ‘process’, acquire such differential semes: ‘purpose’ (public water supply, non-drinking water supply, field water supply, industrial water supply, firefighting water supply, centralized water supply etc.), ‘functioning manner’ (double water supply [individual, separate], uniflow water supply, compensational water supply [feeding of water] into the power apparatus). The hyperonym water turbine («engine with rotary movement, in which the water stream energy is used» [1, p. 238]) acquires differential semes ‘function’ (active water turbine), ‘shape’ (vertical water turbine, horizontal water turbine), ‘design features’ (rotary-blade water turbine, Pelton water turbine (dipper water turbine in Ukrainian), propeller water turbine, axial water turbine etc.), ‘speed’ (super high speed water turbine, normal speed water turbine, low speed water turbine, high speed water turbine, reactive water turbine).
The hyperonym lake («natural or artificial cavity filled with water» [1, p. 834]) contains fewer semantic components than hyponyms saline (salty lake in Ukrainian), dystrophic lakes, eutrophied lakes, mesotrophied lakes (acquire the differential seme ‘chemical properties’). The hyponym (thermally) unanimous [non-stratified] lake acquires the differential seme ‘temperature’. The hyponyms of the hyperonym ice («frozen water transformed into the solid crystal state» [1, p. 617]) acquire the following differential semes: ‘location’ (internal water ice, deep water ice, ground ice, continental ice, polar sea ice, polar ice; ‘manner of formation’ (artificial ice, nasslood (glimmer) ice); ‘chemical characteristics’ (crystal ice); ‘shape’ (cake ice), ‘quality’ (amorphous ice, brittle ice, dry ice, thick ice) etc. As a component of compound terms the hyperonym water basin («natural or artificial cavity in the ground in which water is accumulated and stays» [1, p. 198]) is defined concretely by the following differential semes: ‘manner of formation’ (artificial water basin, water basin worked by water, inter-basin water basin); ‘process’ (filtration water basin, regulating water basin); ‘temporal characteristics’ (seasonal water basin, temporary water basin); ‘chemical characteristics’ (dystrophied water basin, eutrophied water basin).
At the same time the volume of the hyperonyms water meter, water supply, lake, ice, water basin is broader compared to hyponyms, because it united all the notions denoted by them. That means that micro-field of hyponyms is formed on the basis of one hyperonym, and they make the meaning of the hyperonym broader.
From the paradigmatic point of view the genus-species relationships are characterized by two types of oppositions: 1) opposition of the genus and every species meaning by the absence/presence of the differentiation component; 2) opposition to each other of all co-hyponyms by the contents of the meaning differentiation component. T. Pan’ko, H. Matsyuk, I. Kochan [3, с. 193] mention that hypero-hyponymic relationships appear either as the result of hyperonyms syntagmatic meanings development or by their paradigmatic meanings actualization. The hyponymic paradigm is the universal means of the certain thematic grouping hierarchical organization, reflecting the mutual dependence between the genus and species notions, which is the “higher form of reflection in the human conscience of the essence of phenomena, notions, and all the theoretical experience gained by the certain branch of science is accumulated in them” [3, p. 194].
The evolution of the hypero-hyponimic relationships among the compound terms with the seme ‘water’ takes place both vertically and horizontally (Fig. 1).
general baths local baths
arsenic containing baths
mineral baths sweet foam baths
sweet baths gas baths
contrast baths sweet aromatic baths
mud baths sweet vibration baths
radon baths sweet hydroelectric baths
Fig. 1. Hypero-hyponymy of the compound term therapeutic baths
The formal-semantic and the properly semantic hypero-hyponymic relationships are distinguished. The following characteristics are inherent to the compound terms with the seme ‘water’: formal-semantic relationships, for which not only the common seme, but also the common lexeme is characteristic; successive subordination of the concretization degrees, when the terms-compounds of the previous level are the hyperonyms for the terms-compounds of the next level. For example, the compound term fire-hose is the hyperonym for the term-compound water fire hose, which becomes hyperonym for the compound names absorbing water fire hose, force water fire hose, acquiring the differential seme ‘process’. The compound term force water fire hose becomes the hyperonym for the terms-hyponyms rubberized force water fire hose, non-rubberized force water fire hose. The term hydrant («water tapping device on the water supply network for water feed, mostly during fires extinguishing [1, p. 236]) is the hyperonym for the terms-compounds fire hydrant, ground fire hydrant, underground fire hydrant, acquiring the differential seme ‘location’. The seme ‘device’ is an integral seme in the lexeme hydrant, and it remains the integral seme in the compound terms-hyponyms dry ground fire hydrant and wet ground fire hydrant, acquiring the differential seme ‘physical properties’.
The meaning of the compound term underground waters is made more concrete in the meanings of the compound terms-hyponyms artesian waters and subsoil waters, which are located on one horizontal line. The compound term artesian waters is simultaneously the hyperonym to the terms-hyponyms pressure artesian waters and non-pressure artesian waters, which form antonymic relationships. The compound term sewage waters is made more concrete horizontically in the compound terms clarified sewage waters, non-clarified sewage waters by the seme ‘degree of clarification’, forming antonymic relationships. The compound terms non-clarified sewage waters is the hyperonym for the compound terms non-regenerated sewage waters, mixed sewage waters (they acquire the differential seme “quality”), household sewage waters, industrial sewage waters (they acquire the differential seme “function”). The terminological unit rosy water, the meaning of which is made more concrete by the seme ‘colour’, is the hyponym for the analytical construction coloured water.
Thus, the genus-species relationships of the compound terms with the seme ‘water’ stipulate the hierarchic character of their internal structure, ensuring the precise separation of notions within a separate terminological system and contributing to its enrichment. The complexity of the genus-species principle in terminology is in the fact that quite frequently the species notions become genus notions for the new species notions. It contributes to the multi-level structure of genus-species relationships inherent for the branch terminological systems.