: 76-90
Received: November 19, 2019
Accepted: November 20, 2019
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Department of Automated Control Systems
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Department of Automated Control Systems

The ar­tic­le pre­sents sche­mes and mo­dels to sup­port de­ci­si­on-ma­king for the eli­mi­na­ti­on of thre­ats du­ring emer­gen­ci­es in hi­erarchi­cal systems. The construc­ti­on of sche­mes and mo­dels was ba­sed on in­for­ma­ti­on and system techno­lo­gi­es (ba­sed on the con­cept of iden­ti­fi­ca­ti­on). In mo­dern techno­lo­gi­cal pro­duc­ti­ons with a complex hi­erarchi­cal struc­tu­re, the cau­ses of an emer­gency can be: fa­ilu­res, obstac­les, mal­functi­ons (both in in­for­ma­ti­on ma­na­ge­ment struc­tu­res and in pro­duc­ti­on units, and in ca­se of techno­logy vi­ola­ti­on).

In the event of er­rors (which may be ma­de in the pro­cess of analyzing a li­mi­ting sit­ua­ti­on or emer­gency) and in­cor­rect de­ci­si­ons, the dyna­mics of the de­ve­lop­ment of events will ha­ve di­sastro­us con­seq­uen­ces. To pre­vent the de­ve­lop­ment of events un­der such a sce­na­rio, ope­ra­ti­onal and techni­cal per­son­nel sho­uld ha­ve an approp­ri­ate le­vel of syste­ma­tic know­led­ge. This al­lows staff to iden­tify the so­ur­ces of ha­zards and fac­tors, to bu­ild a cau­se-and-ef­fect re­la­ti­onships. This be­co­mes the ba­sis for the analysis of the sta­te of po­ten­ti­ally dan­ge­ro­us ob­jects (PDO) in the hi­erarchi­cal struc­tu­re of the system. This system-in­for­ma­ti­on ba­sis is ne­ces­sary for construc­ting sce­na­ri­os for the de­ve­lop­ment of events, iden­tif­ying bottle­necks and ma­king de­ci­si­ons in the con­text of eli­mi­na­ting thre­ats and emer­gency con­di­ti­ons by the ope­ra­ti­onal ma­na­ge­ment te­am. For complex struc­tu­res of techno­ge­nic systems, the prob­lem of iden­ti­fi­ca­ti­on (both dyna­mics and in­ter­con­nec­ti­ons of aggre­ga­tes) is not fully re­sol­ved. This req­ui­res the de­ve­lop­ment of new met­hods ta­king in­to ac­co­unt hu­man be­ha­vi­or.

Mo­dern pro­duc­ti­on is a complex in­teg­ra­ted hu­man-mac­hi­ne control­led system and ma­na­ge­ment stra­tegy (which are inclu­ded both in the struc­tu­re of the au­to­ma­ted control system and in the know­led­ge ba­se and pro­fes­si­onal skills of the hu­man ope­ra­tor). A cha­rac­te­ris­tic fe­atu­re of such systems is the distri­bu­ti­on of in­for­ma­ti­on lo­ad in ac­cor­dan­ce with the tar­get tasks. This req­ui­res the de­ve­lop­ment of da­ta flows of va­ri­ous in­for­ma­ti­onal sig­ni­fi­can­ce, iden­tif­ying the cha­rac­te­ris­tic signs of the system's be­ha­vi­or re­la­ti­ve to the tar­get, and for­ming so­lu­ti­ons for co­or­di­na­ting the system's mo­ve­ment in the di­rec­ti­on of the tar­get area. The­se de­ci­si­on-ma­king pro­ces­ses and pro­ce­du­res incre­ase the men­tal ten­si­on of the ope­ra­tor. This may le­ad to de­ci­si­ons to un­ne­ces­sary risk. That is, in ac­cor­dan­ce with the sit­ua­ti­on, the pri­ce of er­ror incre­ases. This is what forms the set of req­ui­re­ments for the ope­ra­tor: both to the le­vel of his in­tel­lec­tu­al re­adi­ness, and to his psychophysi­olo­gi­cal cha­rac­te­ris­tics.

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