This study research investigated the seismic effects on the design of retaining walls. The basic analysis theory of retaining structures under static load is the Coulomb theory, stating that the pressure of a loose body on the lateral surface is determined from the static equilibrium condition of rigid wedge formed in the bed between backsides of the structure and slipping area, considering the wedge as rigid body. Dynamic pressure of the soil was studied in the works of Okabe and Mononobe. Currently, these studies are basic in the preparation of regulatory documents. However, there are discrepancies between the approaches of Ukraine, Europe, and the United States in this matter. Analyzed regulatory guides for the calculation of these structures for the action of dynamic loads. Assessed the discrepancies between the calculated dependencies established by USA codes, Ukraine codes, and Eurocode. This work shows the relation between the curvature of the back face of the retaining wall, and the lateral pressure diagram of the bulk material due to seismic load.

Kleyn, G. K. (1964). Raschet podpornyih sten. Moskva, Vyisshaya shkola.
Okabe, S. (1926), General Theory of Earth Pressure. Journal of the Japanese Society of Civil Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 12 (1).
Mononobe, N., & Matsuo, H. (1929). On the determination of earth pressure during earthquakes. Proceedings, World Engineering Conference, 9, 176.
Mikola, RG., Candia, G., & Sitar, N. (2014). Seismic earth pressures on retaining structures and basement walls. Conference Paper in Geotechnical Special Publication. Proceedings of the10th National Conference in Earthquake Engineering, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Anchorage, USA.
Abdul-Hamid Soubra., & Macuh, B. (2002). Active and passive earth pressure coefficients by a kinematical approach. Proceedings of the ICE - Geotechnical Engineering, Thomas Telford, 155 (2)
Ghosh1, S., & Satarupa Sengupta. (2012). Formulation of Seismic Passive Resistance of Non-Vertical Retaining Wall Backfilled with c-Φ Soil, Civil and Environmental Vol 2, No.1.
Chidanand M Jadar., & Ghosh 1, S. (2017). Pseudo-dynamic Analysis of Shallow Strip Footing Considering Non-Linear Rupture Surface. International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Volume 11.
Ghosh1, S., & Satarupa, S. (2012). Extension of Mononobe-Okabe Theory to Evaluate Seismic Active Earth Pressure Supporting c-φ Backfill. The Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Vol. 17.
Nimbalkar, S., & Choudhury, D. (2015). Design of earth retaining structures and tailing dams under static and seismic conditions. 50-th Indian Geotechnical Conference.
Wu, G., & Finn, W.D. (1999). Seismic Lateral Earth Pressure for Design of Rigid Walls. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol: 36.
Wu, G., & Finn, W.D.L. (1996). Seismic pressures against rigid walls. in analysis and design of retaining structures against earthquakes, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers Convention, Washington.
Nozu, A., Ichii, K., & Sugano T., (2004). Seismic design of port structures. Journal of Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 4, No3.
Jahangir, M. H., Soleymani, H., & Sadeghi, S. (2017). Evaluation of unsaturated layer effect on seismic analysis of unbraced sheet pile wall. Open Journal of Marine Science
Kalmykov, O., Khalife, R., & Grabowski, A. (2019). Search for rational contour of back surface of retaining wall. AIP Conference Proceedings.
Kalmykov O.A. (2013) Podpornaya stena ratsionalnogo ochertaniya / MIzhvIdomchiy naukovo-tehnIchniy zbIrnik «Naukovo-tehnIchnI problemi suchasnogo zalIzobetonu». Vip.78. Kyiv. DP NDIBK.
Babaev, V. N., Shmukler, V.S., Feirushah, S. H., Kalmykov, O. A., & Zinchenko, V. M. (2012). Rational design of retaining walls. BUITEMS "Journal of applied and emerging sciences" - Vol. 3, Issue 1, Pakistan.
Shmukler, V. S., Kalmykov, O. A., (2014) Poisk optimalnyih konfiguratsiy poverhnostey konstruktsiy, nagruzhennyih syipuchim. ZbIrnik naukovih prats UkrDAZT, vip.149
Law of European Union. Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance - Part 5. European Committee for Standardization. Brussels. (2003)
Law of USA. Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures Volume I: Part 1 Provisions, Part 2 Commentary FEMA P-1050-1 (2015)
Law of Ukraine. DSTU-N B V.2.1-31:2014 Nastanova z proektuvannya pIdpIrnih stIn. KiYiv. MInregion Ukrayini. (2015)
Law of New Zealand. Earthquake geotechnical engineering practice. MODULE 6: Earthquake resistant retaining wall design. New Zealand Geotechnical society. (2017)
Law of the Soviet Union. SNiP 11-7-81. Stroitelstvo v seysmicheskih rayonah. (1981)