The scientific heritage of Norbert Wiener, the founder of cybernetics

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Lviv Polytechnic National University, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Computer Engineering Department
Lviv Polytechnic Natioinal University

The scientific heritage of the outstanding American scientist, the founder of cybernetics Norbert Wiener is considered in the article. The basic stages of the life path of Norbert Wiener are given. In 2019, 125 years will be celebrated since his birth and 55 years since his death. All his life, Norbert Wiener has devoted himself to scientific work at such prominent scientific centers as Harvard University, Cornell University, Columbia University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and other. The features of Norbert Wiener’s scientific style and his position about the organization of scientific search are considered. The contribution of Norbert Wiener to the origin of computer technology, which in his time was making its first steps, is analyzed. The requirements to the computing machine, formulated by N. Wiener, on which the creators of the first electronic computers were based are given. The main achievements of N. Wiener, which has been fruitfully engaged in scientific work in many fields (mathematics, theoretical cybernetics, control theory, computer engineering, etc.) are considered. One of his greatest achievements is the concept and basic principles of cybernetics, from which almost all modern branches of computer technology and information technology came out. The scientific ideas and hypotheses of Norbert Wiener in the field of cybernetics and prospects of development of these ideas in the new scientific and technical field – cyber-physical systems are describred.

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[2] Norbert Wiener. Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, Paris - Cambridge, Mass., 1948. 194 p.

[3] Norbert Wiener. New chapters of cybernetics, Moscow, Soviet radio, 1963. 63 p. (in Russian).

[4] Norbert Wiener. Cybernetics and society, Moscow, Publishing house of foreign literature, 1958. 200 p. (in Russian).

[5] Wiener Norbert. Some Moral and Technical Consequences of Automation // Science, 1960, 131 (3410), p. 1355-1358.

[6] Norbert Wiener. God & Golem, Inc., MIT Press, 1964. 99 p.

[7] Melnyk A. Cyber-physical systems: problems of creation and directions of development, Transactions on Computer systems and networks, Lviv Polytechnic National University Press, No. 806, 2014. pp. 154-161 (in Ukrainian).

[8] Melnyk A. Integration of the levels of the cyber-physical system, Transactions on Computer systems and networks, Lviv Polytechnic National University Press, No. 830, 2015. pp. 61-67 (in Ukrainian).

[9] Anatoliy Melnyk. Cyber-physical systems multilayer platform and research framework, Advances in CyberPhysical Systems, 2016, Volume 1, Number 1. pp. 1-6.

[10] Anatoliy Melnyk. A foreword from the Editor, Advances in Cyber-Physical Systems, 2016, Volume 1, Number 1.

[11] Cyber-physical systems: multilevel organization and design / A. A. Melnyk, V. A. Melnyk, V. S. Glukhov, M. Salo, ed. A. O. Melnyk. Lviv: Magnolia 2006, 2019. 237 p. (in Ukrainian).

[12] Cyber-physical systems: data collection technologies / O. Yu. Botchkaryov, V. A. Golembo, Y. S. Paramud, V. O. Yatsyuk, ed. A. O. Melnyk. Lviv: Magnolia 2006, 2019. 176 p. (in Ukrainian).