: 87-109
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv polytechnic national university, Department of Architecture and Conservation

In this article the authors touch on the methods of fortifications of the cities of
Eastern Podillya - the least studied region of Ukraine. Components of long-term urban
fortifications are considered as a single system of so-called urban defense complexes.
Mandatory components of this system are a defensive castle and fortifications of the
middletowns, which are recorded on the maps of military cartographers of the 17th-18th
centuries. With this in mind, the authors clarify in the article the strategic importance of
Eastern Podillya for the state and consider the development of urban defense complexes on
its territory in retrospect. The analyzed sources allow us to speak about two periods of
fortification development in Eastern Podillya. The first concerns the subordination of the
territory to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania during the reign of Vytautas I, who expanded to
the Black Sea coast and fortified the Southern Bug basin with a chain of fortifications and
customs. After the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople and Crimea, trade ties with the
south were lost, and its territory became dangerous for Podillya due to raids by nomads.
Lithuania lost Vytautas' southern conquests and became completely dependent on Poland
as a result of the introduction of a personal union. Subsequently, an administrative and
political system identical to other provinces of Poland was introduced on the territory of
Eastern Podillya and the Bratslav Voivodeship was formed. After the Union of Lublin, the
territory of Bratslav became a source of huge lands for private ownership of magnates, who
built their own systems for fortification of their estates, so the state was directly removed
from strategic planning of defense of Eastern Podillya, royal power was concentrated only
in the main capitals of Vinnytsia and Bratslav. On the basis of field surveys of partially
preserved urban defense complexes, the article identifies the main types depending on the
compositional and planning features. The location of fortifications on the terrain was also
analyzed with the help of Google Earth software capabilities. Comparison of the data of
relief cross-sections with the verified data of the foundation of fortified settlements revealed
a stable correlation. Thus, the fortifications of the cities that were founded in the first period
(Grand Duchy) were located on the heights of capes, ridges, hills, while the fortifications
of the later ones were located in the valley. Given the low level of research of Ukrainian
cities for the analysis of their defense systems, the authors recommend in further studies to
investigate in detail the groups of cities that formed the estate complexes of specific
magnate families in Podolia - Kalinov, Zbarazh, Zamoysk, and others for a unified defense
system. and highlighting the characteristics of the spatial planning composition.

Aleppskiy, P., 1896-1900. The journey of the Patriarch of Antioch Macarius to Russia in the middle of the 17th century, described by his son, Archdeacon Paul of Aleppo: (According to the manuscript of the Moscow chief architect of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Translated from Arabic by G. Murkos. Moskva: Obshchestvo vo ystoryy y drevnostey rossyyskykh pry Moskovskom unyversytete.
Baytsar, A., 2017. Ukrainian ethnic lands in the atlas of Giovanni Antonio Rizzi Zannoni 1772 [online] Avialiable at: <> [Accessed1 October2020]
Bevz, M., 2002. Studies of architectural and urban development of the city of Belz 11th-20th centuries.Vísnik ínstitutu «Ukrzakhídproyektrestavratsíya», 12. L'vív.
Bevz, M., V., 2019, Architectural and planning principles of the Renaissance "ideal city", implemented during the founding and development of Zhovkva in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Vísnik Natsíonal'nogo uníversitetu "L'vívs'ka polítekhníka". Seríya: Arkhítektura, 1. L'vív: Vidavnitstvo L'vívs'koí̈ polítekhníki, pp.68-96.
Beletskaya, O., 2018. The name of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas in the names of the Northern Black Sea region of the XVI - XVIII centuries. Lietuvos istorijos studijos, 42. Vilniaus, pp.7-28.
Bílíns'kiy, M., 1926. Vinnytsia Castle: A Historical Essay from the 16th-18th Centuries. Vínnitsya.
Boyko O. and Slobodyan V., 2006. Development and formation of the urban structure of Belz on the basis of iconographic and archival research. Belz í Belz'ka zemlya. Naukoviy zbírnik, 2. Belz, pp.140-166.
Bondar, O., 2014. Chernihiv fortress in the second half of the seventeenth century. Sums'kiy ístoriko-arkhívniy zhurnal, 22. Sumy.
Boplan, G.L., 1990. Description of Ukraine. Translated from French by Y.I. Kravets, Z.P. Borisyuk. Kií̈v.
Vinokur, Í. S. and Zabashta, R. V., 1991. Bush: historical and local lore essay. Khmel'nits'kiy. Gedz', T., 2011a. On the question of the existence and localization of "steppe" Zvenigorod [online] Avialiable at: < [Accessed1 October2020].
Gedz', T., 2012. Sokoletska volost and surrounding lands in 1391 [online] Available at: < [Accessed1 October2020].
Gedz', T., 2013. Ways from Kyiv to Bratslav in the XV-XVII centuries [online] Available at: < [Accessed1 October2020].
Gedz', T., 2015. Bratslav parish in 1392 [online] Available at: < [Accessed 1 October2020].
Dashkeich, YA., 1991. Ukraine on the border between East and West (XIV-XVIII centuries). Zapiski Naukovogo tovaristva ím.Shevchenka, 222, Pratsí ístoriko - fílosofs'koí̈ sektsíí̈, L'vív: Vidavnitstvo Naukovogo tovaristva ímení T.Shevchenka u L'voví.
Dyba, YU. ta Ryazanova, N., 2019. Yahorlyk is a fortified town on the border of three states. Current Issues in Research, Conservation and Restoration of Historic Fortifications, 11. Chełm,Lviv: Rastr-7.
Dobrolyub'kiy, A. and Smirnov, Í., 2011. Nomads of southwestern Ukraine in the 10th-17th centuries. Kií̈v, Mikolaí̈v: Ílíon.
Kachor, L., 2009. Medieval Lviv. Fortifications. L'vív: Apríorí.
Kisílevs'kiy, V., 1966, Description of the Right Bank of Ukraine in the Atlas of Joannes Jansoni. Ukraí̈ns'kiy ístorik, 3, pp.3-4.
Kolesnikov, K.M., 2019. History of customs activity: Ukraine in international customs and trade networks. Tutorial. Dnípro: UMSF.
Kravtsov, S.R., 1993. Principles of regular urban planning of Galicia of the XIV - XVII centuries. PhD. Moskva.
Kravchenko, V., 2005. Lithuanian Metrics. - Book 561: Revisions of Ukrainian castles in 1545. Kií̈v: Naukove tovaristvo ím. Shevchenka v Ameritsí, Naukove tovaristvo ím. Shevchenka v
Ukraí̈ní, NAN Ukraí̈ni, Ínstitut ukraí̈ ns'koí̈ arkheografíí̈ ta dzhereloznavstva ím. M. S. Grushevs'kogo.
Krikun, M., 2008. Bratslav Voivodeship in the 16th-18th centuries: Articles and materials. L'vív: Vidavnitstvo Ukraí̈ns'kogo Katolits'kogo Uníversitetu.
Kuchera, M. P., 1965. Medieval settlement near the village of Sokilci on the Southern Bug. Arkheologíya, 19, pp.201-214.
Logvin, G. N., 1959b. Castle in Ostroh. Kií̈v: Derzhbudvidav.
Logvin, H. N., 1967a, Medzhibozh Castle: an architectural monument of the 16th century, t.1, pp.149-158.
Logvyn, H. N., 1967b. Lutsk Castle. Culture and art of ancient Rus'. Lenynhrad: Yzdatelʹstvo Lenynhradskoho hosudarstvennoho unyversyteta, pp.102-107.
Logvyn, H. N., 1967c. Khotyn: castle. Kyiv: Mystetstvo.
Lukomsʹka, Z. V., 2007. Development of the planning and compositional structure of the center of Ivano-Frankivsk in the 17th-20th centuries. Lʹviv: Natsionalʹnyy un-t "Lʹvivsʹka
Lukomsʹka, Z. and Malyshko, O., 2015, Urban heritage of Kalush in the period of XV - XVIII centuries. Suchasni problemy doslidzhennya, restavratsiyi ta zberezhennya kulʹturnoyi spadshchyny: Zb. nauk. pr. z mystetstvoznav., arkhitekturoznavstva i kulʹturolohiyi, 11. Kyiv: In-t problem suchas. mystets. NAM Ukrayiny, Feniks, pp.183-188.
Malʹchenko, O., 2001. Fortified settlements of Bratslav, Kyiv and Podil voivodships (XVmiddle of XVII centuries). Kyiv: Instytut ukrayinsʹkoyi arkheohrafiyi ta dzhereloznavstva im. M. Hrushevsʹkoho NAN Ukrayiny
Matsyuk, O. YA., 2005. Castles and Fortesses of Western Ukraine: historical travels. Lʹviv: Tsentr Yevropy.
Mykhaylovsʹkyy, V., 2002. Castles on the sand. Review by: Oleg Malchenko. Fortified settlements of Bratslav, Kyiv and Podil voivodships (15th - middle of 17th centuries). Kyiv: Instytut ukrayinsʹkoyi arkheohrafiyi ta dzhereloznavstva NANU.
Mohytych, R., 1993. Lviv is a fortress city. Viche, 15,16. Lʹviv.
Mohytych, R., 2008. Suburban fortifications of Lviv. Visnyk UZPR, 18. Lʹviv, pp.106-116. Nahnybda, R., 2018. Church annals of the Baltic district of the Podolsk province 1866-1899. Drohobych : Kolo.
Nahnybida, R., 2011, Defensive fortifications of cities and towns of the Podolsk region of the 13th - 18th centuries.. In: Pohoriletsʹ, O., red., 2011. Naukovyy visnyk «Mezhybizh»: Materialy chetvertoyi naukovo-krayeznavchoyi konferentsiyi «Starodavniy Medzhybizh v istoryko-kulʹturniy spadshchyni Ukrayiny». Medzhybizh-Khmelʹnytsʹkyy: PP Melʹnyk A.A.
Nelʹhovskyy YU. P., 1979, Some features of the castles of the Podolsk lands of Ukraine 16th- early 17th centuries. Arkhytekturnoe nasledstvo, 27. Moskva: Stroyyzdat, pp.89-96.
Novgorod first chronicle of senior and junior derivations, 1950. Moskva-Lenynhrad, pp.475-477
Okonchenko, O., 2012. The meaning of the term "castle" in the study of the defense architecture of the Commonwealth. II Vseukrayinsʹka naukovo-praktychna konferentsiya Kamʺyanetsʹ-Podilʹsʹkoho derzhavnoho istorychnoho muzeyu-zapovidnyka.
Olyanchyn, D., 1937. Description of the trip of the Swedish ambassador to Ukraine 1656- 1657. Zapysky Naukovoho Tovarystva im. Shevchenka, 154, pp.51-52.
Otamanovsʹkyy, V. D., 1993. Vinnytsia in the 14th-17th centuries. Vinnytsya: Kontynentprym.
Monuments of history and culture of the Vinnytsia region, 1990. Materyaly k svodu pamyatnykov ystoryy y kulʹtury narodov SSSR po Ukraynskoy SSR, 8. Kyev.
Rybchynsʹkyy. O.V., 2017. Formation and revitalization of historical cities of Ukraine. Doktor nauk. Lʹviv: Natsionalʹnyy universytet «Lʹvivsʹka politekhnika»
Rychkov, P.A., 2016. Notes on the urban history of Bratslav. In: Vinnytsʹkyy oblasnyy krayeznavchyy muzey, 2016. Mista i mistechka Podillya vid doby Serednʹovichchya do pochatku XX st. Materialy naukovoyi konferentsiyi 24-25 veresnya 2015 r. Vinnytsya, pp.314-323.
Rusov, A. A., 1876. Russian tracts in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Kyev.
Tersʹkyy, S.V., 2006. Luchesk in 10th-15th centuries. Lʹviv: Vydavnytstvo Natsionalʹnoho universytetu "Lʹvivsʹka politekhnika".
Tychuk, Y.E., 2016. The system of defense of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the Tatar threat as a reason for the emergence of cities in eastern Podillya. In: Vinnytsʹkyy oblasnyy krayeznavchyy muzey, 2016. Mista i mistechka Podillya vid doby Serednʹovichchya do pochatku XX st. Vynnytsya, pp. 44-48.
Fedunkiv, Z. B., 2015. Localization of the castle and city fortifications of Kalush in the 16th-18th centuries. on historical and cartographic materials. Pratsi Tsentru pam'yatkoznavstva, 27, pp.278-290.
Filipova, H. V., 2016. Fortification of Kiev on the eve of the Great Northern War: the project of Lamot de Champier. Pytannya istoriyi nauky i tekhniky, 3, pp.12-18.