Automated generation of a digital model of an object's micro surface from a SEM-stereo pair by area-based image matching

Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Polytechnic National University

Purpose. The goal of this work was the development and research of a method of automatically constructing a digital model of the micro surface of an object from SEM stereo pair of digital images taking into account the specifics of the survey SEM and evaluating the accuracy of digital modeling. Methods. The developed method consists, firstly, in generating a dense set of input points in the left SEM image of a stereo pair in regions with local features and using an iterative process in accordance with the levels of the image pyramid. Secondly, the search for the corresponding points in the right SEM image of the stereo pair is carried out on the basis of sequentially shifting the points (centers of the search windows) by a shift parameter from the possible parallax's range using the correlation method. For research, we have used two stereo pairs of digital SEM images. Digital images of the deformed surface chrome steel specimen were acquired with the JSM 7100F (JEOL) with magnification 750x. Images of loess soil were acquired with the SEM “Hitachi” S-800 with magnification 1000x. When calculating the spatial coordinates of the points of the surface micro relief, the values of geometric distortion inherent in the SEM image were taken into account. To eliminate some anomalous values of the heights of the 3D model, an adaptive median filtering procedure was applied. To evaluate the accuracy of micro surface simulation test models were created by manually measuring coordinate feature points of the digital stereo pairs for both specimens. Results. The proposed method for shifting parameters reduces the search area and the probability of mismatch and, in addition, speeds up the matching procedure in a pair of images. Formulas are obtained for calculating the coordinates of the center of the search window and the corresponding point in the right image at the k-th step of the shift process. To estimate the accuracy, the differences between the heights of the test model and the heights interpolated at the same points using the created models were computed. For the chrome steel specimen micro surface about 79% of the points, and for the micro surface specimen of the loess soil about 70% of the points were within tolerance ΔZ ≤ ± 2 μm. Scientific novelty. For the first time in Ukraine, a method was developed for an automatic search of corresponding points based on a shift of parameters taking into account the features of SEM survey. The proposed technological reconstruction automation scheme of a digital model of an object’s micro surface from SEM stereo pair, and the creation of this authoring software show its efficiency and expediency. The practical significance. The ability to reproduce the surface micro relief of an object automatically using a stereo pair of SEM digital images was established in accordance with the requirements of both the accuracy of determining the spatial coordinates of points and the structure of the micro surface of the object.

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