The place of geodesy and gravimetry in the complex Earth sciences

: pp. 32 - 39
Lviv Polytechnic National University

The aim of this article is the role and place of geodesy and gravimetry in the complex Earth Sciences and making recommendations for their using in various fields of knowledge of science. Problem and its relation with important scientific and practical tasks. In the article we consider some issues of the current state and prospects of geodesy and gravimetry. So modern geodesy – natural branch, which includes several areas: geodesy and topography, applied engineering or surveying, marine surveying, space geodesy, higher geodesy and physical geodesy and others. The task of modern geodesy is not only the study of the physical surface and external gravitational field of the Earth, but also the study of equipotential surfaces of equal gravity potential. The current state of geodesy is characterized by the creation of a unified state or global coordinate system and parameters of the external Earth's gravitational field, and a new system of normal heights and updated modernized gravimetric system. Becouse of that the need for a high-precision gravimetric information has increased in connection with the widespread introduction of satellite technology for solving geodetic problems. It is emphasized that modern geodesy conclusively has won the status of the most fundamental, most versatile, most accurate and essential area of science education and production in complex of the Earth sciences. In the article we also considered the short history of appearance and development the gravimetric studies in the world and in Ukraine. Development of gravimetry is defined by technical capabilities and scientific tasks of geodesy and geophysics, and the gravimetry task is to determine the parameters of the Earth gravitational field and other celestial bodies as a function of location and time using measurements of gravity and gravity gradient. Feature of gravity development during the last three centuries is the continuous extension of the studied areas of continents and oceans, and thus precision of gravimetric measurements kept increasing and reached to the level of one microGal. We make analysis of Earth gravimetric study based on land and sea measuring of gravity using data of satellite altimetry and gradiometry. The detail of gravity field for the needs of geodesy, geophysics, geology and oceanography is estimated nearly 1 mGal for gravity anomalies and the accuracy of the quasigeoid heights is nearly 1 – 2 cm. We adjusted the current state of gravimetric knowledge on Ukraine area and noted the discrepancy of gravimetric network by quality and density of points and prospect of construction the new country integrated into the global system of geodetic providing.

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