Conglomerates with the exotic material in the Ukrainian Carpathians – distribution, composition, probable genesis
Received: January 17, 2018
Revised: February 28, 2018
Accepted: March 15, 2018
Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Purpose. The aim of the study is to analyze the features of the exotic conglomerates composition and their probable sources of origin in the Ukrainian Carpathians as well as to create a geological sketch of their distribution.  Methodology. The methodology includes a detailed complex analysis and synthesis of available actual geological material, as well as comparison of the obtained data. Results. On the basis of systematized source material, a table was compiled for the correlation of age and composition of exotic conglomerates of the Ukrainian Carpathians, and an indicative scheme of their distribution was created. Exotic conglomerates are developed in different structural zones of the Earth's crust, but especially wide in the folded regions and foothill deflections. They are one of the best indicators of paleogeographical conditions and have great paleotectonic significance. Using data from research on the composition of the fragments of conglomerates, the author attempted to reproduce the location and character of the wear source geological structure. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that these rocks do not meet the proposed sources of wear. The presence of ancient metamorphic rocks fragments in exotic conglomerates allowed to emerge the hypothesis of internal elevations (cordierier). In the geological history of the Carpathians, they were described as the performances of the Carpathian passage foundations, which divided the flish of tropes and their position relative to the sea level, and influenced the redistribution of sedimentary material. However, there is still no proper explanation of the cordieriers specific formation. The necessity of further detailed study of the problem of distribution and the composition of exotic conglomerates is substantiated. Originality. The article analyzes the main investigations of exotic rocks and characterizes the probable sources of origin of the debris material. For the first time the most complete summary of exotic conglomerates exists and is presented for the entire region of the Ukrainian Carpathians along with the composition and age of debris material. Practical significance. The research results will contribute to a better understanding of the Ukrainian Carpathians geological structure, in particular, will be of great importance for paleogeographic and paleotectonic constructions.

  1. Alfer'ev, G. P. (1949). To the question of the tectonic and stratigraphic position of the Truskavets conglomerates of Borislav. Proceedings of the Carpathian Research Institute of the Geology Ministry, (1), 74–89 (in Russian).
  2. Balits'kiy, D. K. (1963). The main features of the geological structure and regularities of the formation of coarse clastic rocks of the North Bukovina Carpathians flysch. Abstract of Cand. thesis. Krasnoyarsk.
  3. Vyalov, О. S. (1967). About the Cordilleras in the Carpathian Flysch Basin. Materials of the VII Congress of KBGA– Kyiv: Naukova Dumka, 114–118 (in Russian).
  4. Gurzhiy, D. V. (1969). Lithology of Precarpathians molasses. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. (in Russian).
  5. Vyalov, O. S., Gavura, S. P., & Danysh, V. V. (1981). History of geological development of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Kyiv: Naukova dumka (in Russian).
  6. Koltun, V. I. (1959). Lithology of stebnyts'kykh deposits in the north-western part of the Soviet Precarpathians. Moscow: Publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (in Ukrainian).
  7. Linetskaya L. V. (1963). Conglomerates of Cretaceous and Paleogene of the northern slopes of the Carpathians and their significance for the paleogeography. Abstract of Cand. thesis. Lviv (in Russian).
  8. Linetskaya, L. V. (1959). On the conglomerates of the Paleogene of the Northern slope of the Soviet Carpathians. Reports of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 127(4), 849–852 (in Russian).
  9. Marchenko, T. Y. (2004). The value of pebbles of domezozoyskyh rocks to solve the problems of paleogeography and tectonics of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals, (2), 114–118 (in Ukrainian).
  10. Sen'kovs'kyy, Y. M. (2001). Paleo Oceanology of the Carpathian-Black Sea Segment of the continental margin of the Tethis Ocean in the Late Mesozoic. Geological Collection, 5, 61-70 (in Ukrainian).
  11. Stupka, O. S. (2008). Source for sediments of the Carpathian flysch: A geodynamic aspect. Geodynamics, (1(7)), 39–46 (in Ukrainian).
  12. Mayevs'kyy, B. Y., Zhuchenko, H. O., & Monchak, L. S. (2004). A modern view of geodynamic processes and conglomerate formation in the Carpathian Trench. Exploration and Development of Oil and Gas Fields, (2(11)), 56–59 (in Ukrainian).
  13. Tkachenko, О. А. (1961). Lithological and mineralogical characteristics of the Precarpathia Lower Miocene deposits. Abstract of Cand. thesis. Lviv (in Russian).
  14. Tkachenko, O. F. (1966). Materials for petrography of "exotic" conglomerates of the Carpathian region. Geological Study of the USSR, 31(2), 155–156 (in Russian).
  15. Tkachuk, L. G., & Gurzhiy, D. V. (1957). Rakhov crystalline massif (Carpathians). Kyiv: Publishing house of the USSR Academy of Sciences (in Russian).
  16. Fedushchak, M. Y. (1962). Conditions for the formation of exotic conglomerates of the Precarpathians vorotyschenskoyi series. Kyiv: Publishing house of the USSR Academy of Sciences (in Ukrainian).
  17. Chernov, V. G. (1982). Psephytes and their geological significance. Moscow: MSU Publishing House (in Russian).
  18. Chernov, V. G. (1984). Psephytes of the Soviet Carpathians. Moscow: Moscow State University (in Russian).
  19. Burtan, J., Golonka, J., Tomas, A., & Zajac, R. (1983). New finds of Paleozoic carbonate exotics in the Flysch of the Polish Outer Carpathians. Kwartalnik Geologiczny, 27(2), 307–328 (in Polish).
  20. Cizancourt, H. (1926). Contribution to acquaintance with the province near Truskavets. Kosmos, 373-392 (in Polish).
  21. Kropaczek, B. (1919). Geological studies according to materials collected by Mr. Kropaczka, compiled by prof. J. Grzybowski. Stacya Geologiczna W Borysławiu.
  22. Oszczypko, N., Uchman, A., & Bubniak, I. (2012). Foreland provenance of thick conglomerates in the early stage of the Carpathian Foredeep development: The case of the Sloboda Conglomerate (Lower Miocene), western Ukraine. Geological Quarterly, 56(4), 789-802. doi:10.7306/gq.1055
  23. Oszczypko, N., Uchman, A., & Bubniak, I. (2014). The Dobrotiv Formation (Miocene) in the Boryslav-Pokuttya and Sambir nappes of the Ukrainian Carpathians: A record of sedimentary environmental change in the development of the Carpathian Foredeep basin. Geological Quarterly. doi:10.7306/gq.1152
  24. Ryłko, W., & Tomaś, A. (2005). Basement structure below the West Carpathian–East Carpathian orogen junction (eastern Poland, north-eastern Slovakia and western Ukraine). Geologica Carpathica, 56(1), 29–40.