The application of thermodynamic analysis for studying the equilibrium of chemical reactions between components of architectural monuments made of stone and air components of large cities is considered. In order to evaluate the possibility of a chemical reaction, it is necessary to calculate the change in enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy. The heat effect of the reaction (change of the en-thalpea) and the change of entropy have a secondary value for the course of such reactions. The proven values of ΔCр allow us to verify the correctness of the calculations ΔН0Т and ΔS0Т. Gibbs energy at constant pressure and temperature is a criterion for the direction of the process, which is the thermal ethete and the change in the entropy of the reaction. The negative value of the Gibbs energy, according to the calculations for the chemical reaction, indicates the possibility of its self-propagation, and a positive value indicates the impossibility of self-propelled flow of such a reaction. The account count is carried out in two stages. In the first, the thermal effect of the reaction and the change of entropy at 298 K, in the second change of these parameters and Gibbs energy in the temperature range of operation of the architectural monument are calculated. The use of the standard Gibbs energy change allows us to draw tabular data on the heat of the formation of rechovins and the significance of their entropy to the calculations.
Using the example of the interaction of sulfur oxide (YI) with limestone, the Using the example of the interaction of sulfur oxide (YI) with limestone, the application of this method in the temperature range of -30 ° C to + 50 ° C is shown using the Excell tables and the thermodynamic parameters of the individual substances of the participants in the chemical reaction. Throughout the temperature interval, the reaction takes place with the release of heat, and the increase in temperature reduces the exothermic reaction. Entropy during the course of this reaction has a negative meaning, which indicates a decrease in disorder in the system. An additional value of ΔCp indicates an increase in ΔН0Т and ΔS0Т with an increase in temperature, which is consistent with the disaggregation. It is established that Gibbs energy in these conditions is negative and this reaction can occur independently, and with increasing temperature the thermodynamic pressure decreases somewhat. The values of the constants of equilibrium (Кр) indicate a significant shift in the reciprocity in the direction of reaction products. The course of this reaction leads to the conversion of limestone to calcium sulfate, which probably causes the appearance of zones with weakened mechanical properties. The methods of preventing the flow of this reaction, which include optimization of transport, regulation of internal combustion engines, replacement of cars with internal combustion engines on electric vehicles, application of film-forming compositions with the purpose of forming an insulating layer between limestone and aggressive components of air of large cities, are proposed.
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