: 32-44
Lviv Politechnic National University, Department of Architecture and Conservation

The article analyzes studies and publications on the subject of church architecture, which focus on the planning, volume-spatial features, traditions of the formation and development of wooden and stone church architecture, as well as light, color, material, compositional techniques, and symbolism in the formative vision of the development of Ukrainian church building. Therefore, the problems of the relationship between function and form, architectural form and technique, the problem of the image and the means of its realization, which the architectural form provides, remain relevant to this day. The integral form of an architectural work expresses the peculiarities of its organization and the way it exists in the context of the environment and culture. The form acts as a material embodiment of essential information for the practical activity and spiritual life of people, and as a carrier of aesthetic value and ideological and artistic content of architectural works. Forms are used as a means of communication and expression of relationships between people, and in the case of sacred, temple buildings, as a relationship between people and the Creator. The subordination of the form to certain trends in style creation makes it possible to personally feel the connection of one's object-spatial environment with a wide range of environment and culture.  All of this connects the problems of form and form-making with the broadest intentions of reproducing society. Tectonics is also defined as the organization of an expedient and at the same time expressive constructive structure, which is included in the list of means of forming an image. The subject of tectonics is the morphology of a structure that turns into a means of expression.  And the ways of expanding this concept at the expense of the regularities of space organization leads to the fact that tectonics loses the specificity of content and is practically superimposed on such a concept as composition. The tectonicity of an architectural form is determined by the use of structural properties as a means of expression, but not the expression of the structural structure itself. The construction as such is a means of realizing the function of architecture, at the same time the function of expressiveness, but not the content that the architectural image should reveal. Therefore, a work of architecture embodies a certain image, an image that contains socially significant content, as a necessary part of its function. But the image also serves as a necessary tool to give the architectural work integrity to an organized, harmonious form. The organization of space and its structuring determine the fundamental basis of architectural composition at any level of environmental systems. The article considers the architecture of the space of church buildings as a category of form that creates a tectonic and volumetric-planning structure in church building. The article shows the peculiarities of forming in the architecture of church buildings and the compositional structure, which is determined through mass, space and surface and through such creative components as idea-form-function-value-sign (symbol).

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