: 95-99
Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture

Today, when the wheel of world history is fluttering, it becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish joy and despair from the tremendous achievements and no less losses from the achievements, downs and failures of modern culture and civilization. These reassessments, which historically formed at the turn of the epoch, revolutionary upheavals and landslides with an impressive regularity, were most actively manifested in art during the periods of confrontation and confrontation of new, in the general sense, romantic ideas about a bright future with backward classicism as a symbol of outdatedness and insolvency to development. They were based on continuous attempts to create aesthetic ideas and concepts – a new spirituality – appearing in a peculiar «City of God», which would determine the cosmic order of updating the artificial environment of man, his humanity, harmony and beauty.

On considers the actual problem of the return of modern architecture and city planning to the art sphere, the symbol of which is chosen «divine city». It was analyses the historical development of the main aesthetic concepts of «beauty» and «harmony», «space» and «chaos» in philosophy and art of the XIX–XX centuries on examples of review of the concepts of O. Wilde, J. Ruskin, V. Shmakov, J.W. Goethe, V. Tatarkevich.

It was reviewed the connection between the philosophical, artistic and architectural content of these concepts on the sayings of O. Wagner and H. Van de Velde. Also, also it was analyzed the modern changes and transformations of the concepts of «beauty» and «harmony» in the context of the triad of Vitruvius from the position of E. Saarinen and R. Rogers. It was reviewed transformation and metamorphosis of key aesthetic concepts in a context of confrontation and critical opposition between the main artistic and architectural styles and trends – romanticism and classicism, modernism and postmodernism, on the basis of the works of F. L. Wright, H. Grin, R. Venturi, Ch. Jencks, K. Kurokawa, K. Tange, C. Rowe, A. Grumbach.

It was demonstrated the universal character and the cyclic order of the unfolding of these directions with regard to history and theory of the development of the modern architectural environment and its aesthetic foundations. It was proposed the author's structural-logical model of the aesthetic development of this environment in the form of a «Divine City». It includes: radial axes – streets, that symbolizes directions and styles; the central square, that symbolizes Beauty; as well as ring streets, which symbolizes the boundaries of the settlement of representatives and groups of urban communities (town-dwellers, sloboda-dwellers, urbo-dwellers and village-dwellers) and the influence zones of their respective artistic tendencies. Among them: the architectural topic and rhetoric, the tropics and poetics. The model ends with a circular highway, which symbolizes harmony and at the same time ensures the structural integrity and unity of the «Divine City». The proposed model, in this form, will contribute to the further follow-up of research on aesthetic problems in the development of the modern architectural and urban environment, as
well as the return of architecture and urban planning to the field of fine arts.

The idea of a «divine hail» and the deployment of the proposed model of its development as one of the possible versions in determining the hidden potential of this development, creates the necessary and sufficient conditions for further research in the field of aesthetics of the architectural and urban environment, as well as the reversal of architecture and urban planning in the field not only plastic and tectonic arts, but also the return to them of the status of red arts. 

1. Энциклопедия для детей. Всемирная литература. Ч. 2. ХІХ–ХХ века. – М.: Мир энциклопедий Аванта, 2007. – 656 с.

2. Рескин Дж. Лекции об искусстве. – СПб: Азбука, 2016. – 448 с.

3. Щмаков В. Закон синархии и учение о двойственной иерархии монад и множеств. – К.: София, Ltd., 1994. – 320 с.

4. Эккерман И. П. Разговоры с Гете в последние годы его жизни. – Ер.: Айастан,1988. – 672 с.

5. Татаркевич В. Історія шести понять: мистецтво, прекрасне, форма, творчість, відтворництво, естетичне переживання. – К.: Юніверс, 2001. – 367 с.

6. Мастера архитектуры об архитектуре. – М.: Искусство, 1972. – 686 с.

7. Райт Ф. Л. Исчезающий город. – М.: Strelka Press, 2016. – 180 с.

8. Йодике Ю. О происхождении функционализма // Современная архитектура. – 1971, № 6. – С. 21–32.

9. ГинзбургМ . Я. Стиль и эпоха. Проблемы современной архитектуры. – М.: Гос. изд-во, 1924. – 238 с.

10. Тімохін В. О. Архітектура міського розвитку. 7 книг з теорії містобудування. – К.: КНУБА, 2008. – 629 с.