Lviv Polytechnic National University

The article deals with the experience of creating strategic reserves (stockpiles) of oil,
petroleum products and natural gas as a key instrument in ensuring energy security in the
event of a supply crisis and a factor to remain economy functioning in Central European States –
Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary. All these states have common feature – they
are highly dependent on import of oil and gas, most of them have approximately 100 % import
dependency almost from one source – Russian Federation. As result, they are extremely
vulnerable to energy crisis, which may be provoked by political reasons. On the level of
European Union and International Energy Agency, emergency response system has next four
pillar elements: stockpiling system, demand restraint measures, fuel switching (temporarily
replacing with other energy sources) and surge production. In particular, were characterized
models of functioning of such reserves (Public and Industry and their sub-models), regulatory
framework and system of demand restraint measures. However, all above-mentioned states
have common system of emergency response and demand restraint measures, put in place a
National Energy Strategy Organisation as central body for coordination emergency policy.
But, each of them have their own experience regarding creating of stockpiles system counting
peculiarities of their regional development, oil market structure, national policy choices etc.
For example, Slovakia recently had changed its model of oil reserves, Hungary was first in the
region and in EU to introduce gas-stockpiling system with necessary legislative amendments,
Poland has strengthened role of state in its stockpiling system. Regarding demand restraint
measures, which aim rapidly to reduce consumption in a crisis, it necessary to underline that
Central European States mostly have implemented them and prescribed them in their national
regulatory documents. The degree, to which measures could be applied can range from light
handed (such as public information campaign) to more medium and heavy-handed compulsory
measures (driving restrictions and fuel rationing). Hungary has implemented demand restraint
measures from 1979, what can be counted as the oldest developed system of demand restraint
measures in Central Europe. Other measures for supply crisis reaction and management such
as fuel-switching and surge of oil and gas production have no significant potential in above
mentioned states.
Given own opinion about usefulness of researched states experience for Ukraine as it has
according to its obligations within Energy Community and according to Ukraine – EU
Association Agreement to create its own stockpiling system until 2022.
Key words: energy crisis, energy policy, strategic reserves (stockpiles) of oil, petroleum
products and natural gas, models of functioning of stocks – Industry, Public, State, Agency,
demand restraint measures, production surge, fuel-switching

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