: 59-71
Dnipro University of Technology
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Oles Honchar Dnipro National University

The article attempts to catalog the key markers of hate speech used in the propaganda narratives of the aggressor country to create an image of the enemy. The article analyzes an array of propaganda material produced by the Russian Telegram channel ‘SlezhuZa’. The most frequent and significant concepts for the propaganda ecosystem of the Russian Federation are identified: ‘Ukrainianism’, ‘Russophobia’, ‘decaying West’, and ‘Anti-Russia project’. The extra-linguistic circumstances of the origin of each concept are characterized; the etymological layer of each concept is revealed to expose its primary meaning; the polar components of the concepts are established through the explanation of lexemes with associative links, mythologemes, culture, and ideologemes. The linguistic picture of the world based on a particular concept is reconstructed. The historical manifestations of concepts that ensure their influence through the diachrony of ‘visions’ of the Russian Federation are understood. The effect of the information bubble, into which the recipients of the Russian network channel ‘SlezhuZa’ fall, is problematized, given the transboundary nature of the Telegram environment and the lack of development of media critical thinking among Ukrainian users. It is noted that hate speech, instrumentally used in hybrid influences, inspired aggression against our country and is now used to legitimize military actions. It is concluded that propaganda campaigns that unfold around precedentsetting narratives exploit the binary opposition of Us/Them, which keeps the image of the enemy in the focus of public attention. It is indicated that the lexical expansion of hate speech occurs through the creation of neologisms and occasionalisms. It is found that the peripheral meanings of the considered concepts are situational in nature of application, have a high level of associativity and allusiveness to the historical past.

  1. Suprun, V. M. (2022). «Language of victory» in the informational discourse of war. Horizons of printing: scientific journal. Vol. 1 (11). P. 131-142.
  2. Russia's Top Five Persistent Disinformation Narratives. (2022). URL:
  3. Butyrina, M. Temchenko L. (2023). Telegram as a medium for promoting Russian disinformation narratives: channels, methods, frames. Communications and Communicative Technologies. Vol. 23. URL:
  4. Kharytonenko, О., Savenkova, L., Poltavets, Yu, Zainchkivska I. (2022). Hate speech: Challenges and responses (Example of a university environment). Interdisciplinary Studies of Complex Systems No. 20. P. 49-72. URL:
  5. Prytula, M. M. (2022). Lexical trends of the wartime: the formation of a new vocabulary to reflect modernity. A collection of articles based on the materials of the 1st All-Ukrainian (NON) Classical Scientific Internet Conference «Linguistic and Literary Coworking». Kharkiv. Kh.: V.N. Karazin KhNU, 281 p.
  6. Makarets, Yu. (2022). Near-speaking hybrid narratives in the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. Literary studies. Linguistics. Folkloristics. Vol. 1(31). P. 21-26.
  7. Sviderska, O., Gupalo, S. (2022). Psychological features of the perception of the language of the enemy. Bulletin of the National Defense University of Ukraine. Vol. 67(3), 112-119. URL: 6858-2022-67-3-112-119
  8. Sarmina, G.L. (2019). Peculiarities of the functioning of hate speech in the Internet space. Scientific notes of the National University «Ostroh Academy». Series: Philology. 2019. Vol. 7. P. 27-30. URL:
  9. Chhabra A and Vishwakarma D. (2023). A literature survey on multimodal and multilingual automatic hate speech identification. Multimedia Systems. 29:3. (1203-1230). Online publication date: 1-Jun-2023. URL:
  10. R. Rini, E. Utami, A. D. Hartanto. (2020). Systematic Literature Review Of Hate Speech Detection With Text Mining. 2nd International Conference on Cybernetics and Intelligent System (ICORIS), Manado, Indonesia, P. 1-6. URL: doi:10.1109/ICORIS50180.2020.9320755
  11. Ayo, F. E., Folorunso, O., Ibharalu, F.T., Osinuga, I.A., Abayomi-Alli, A. (2021). A probabilistic clustering model for hate speech classification in twitter. Expert Syst. Appl. URL:
  12. Jolanta Darczewska Piotr Żochowski. (2015). Rusofobia w strategii Kremla. Broń masowego rażenia. Ośrodek Studiów Wschodnich. 2.11.2015. URL: 02/rusofobia-w-strategii-kremla
  13. Smart, Сh. (2022). How the Russian Media Spread False Claims About Ukrainian Nazis. The New York Times. 2.07.2022. URL:
  14. Why do Russians have «Russophobia»? Researcher Peter Pomerantsev on the new level of Russian propaganda. Radio Svoboda. 5.11.2022. URL:
  15. #PutinAtWar: How Russia Weaponized "Russophobia". DFRLab. 15.02.2018. URL:
  16. Lozovyi, V. (2023). The use of the image of the enemy and «hate speech» as a component of the Kremlin's anti-Ukrainian policy. Materials of the 3rd International Scientific Conference «Military conflicts and man-made disasters: historical and psychological consequences». P. 102-107. URL: