A low-temperature pyrolysis, the target product of which is pyrocondensate, is one of the options for the recycling usedtires. The fractional composition and properties of pyrocondensate of rubber waste pyrolysis obtained at an industrial plant have been studied. The pyrocondensate was separated into gasoline, diesel fraction and residue. The composition and properties of obtained productswere determined using X-ray fluorescence analysis and IR spectroscopic studies.
The chemical modification of tar with formaldehyde as 37% aqueous solutionhas been studied in the presence of the catalysts. Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide and acid tar were used as the catalysts. The effect of the catalyst nature and amount, as well as temperature, process time and initial components ratio on the softening point, penetration, brittle point and adhesion to crushed stone has been determined. The structure of the modified tars was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. The structural-group composition was determined.
The changes in operational and physico-chemical properties of original and used semi-synthetic motor oil Castrol 10W-40 before and after its use in a diesel engine have been investigated. Derivatographic studies were carried out to examine a thermal stability; IR spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of oil aging products. The composition of the inorganic part of the studied semi-synthetic oils was established by X-ray fluorescence analysis.
The possibility of petroleum residues (tar and oxidized bitumen) modification with formaldehyde (37 % aqueous solution) has been studied at the temperature of 393±3 K for 3 h in the presence of organic solvent and using hydrochloric acid as a catalyst. Toluene, p-xylene, naphta solvent and n-octane were used as the solvents in the amount of 0–40 wt % relative to the initial material. By means of IR spectroscopy the resin-like compounds affecting the operational properties of petroleum residues have been detected.
The scheme of the integrated regeneration method for used mineral motor oils (UMMO) has been developed, according to which M-10DM and NORMAL 15W40 used oils were regenerated. A study on changes in physico-chemical properties, qualitative and elemental composition was carried out, and a mathematical model of the process was built. The further applications of the obtained products were proposed. Based on the obtained results, the technological scheme and flow chart of UMMO integrated regeneration were developed, and the process material balance was calculated.
On the basis of Epidian-6 epoxy resin and methacrylic acid a monomethacrylic derivative of Epidian-6 with free epoxy and methacrylic groups (MMADER) has been synthesized. The structure of MMADER was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of MMADER has been established. The cross-linking of unfilled epoxy-oligomeric mixtures and mixtures filled with CaCO3 has been studied in the presence of MMADER. By means of IR spectroscopy, the chemistry of the formation of mixtures based on Epidian-5, oligoesteracrylate TGM-3, MMADER and polyethylene polyamine has been established.
Biogenic surfactants (rhamnolipid biocomplex, dirhamnolipid and exopolysaccharide) and polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolymer which are the new biosynthesis products of Pseudomonas sp. PS-17 strain have been obtained. The thermal transformation of these products has been studied in the air in the temperature range of 293–1273 K. Thermolysis and IR spectroscopy revealed a formation of rhamnolipid biocomplex between rhamnolipids and exopolysaccharide upon acidification of the culture fluid supernatant to pH = 3. Cellular polymer – polyhydroxyalkanoate – was identified by UV-Vis spectroscopy.
In the paper, the X-ray study of cross-linked polyethylene with isopropenyl styrene or acrylonitrile was carried out. It is shown that cross-linking leads to a significant decrease in the area of the exothermic peak, an increase in the resistance of the structured system to thermal oxidation. These data confirm that the increase in resistance to thermal aging of polyethylene cross-linked with acrylonitrile or isopropenyl styrene fraction.
Using light fraction of coal tar (5.75 wt % of coumarone and 44.45 wt % of indene), glycidyl methacrylate and styrene, the coumarone-indene resin with epoxy groups (CIRE) has been synthesized. Monoperoxy derivative of diglycidyl ether Bisphenol A (PO) was used as an initiator. The possible formation of CIRE has been studied on the model systems consisting of PO, glycidyl methacrylate, indene or coumarone, or styrene, or mixture of mentioned compounds. The synthesized product has been investigated as a polymer additive to bitumen-polymer blends (BPB).
The method for obtaining coumarone-indene resins with methacrylic fragments (CIRM) was developed with the addition of methyl methacrylate, using a light fraction of coal tar and its fraction boiling within 423–463 К. CIRM was obtained via radical cooligomerization using 2,2'-azobis (2-methyl-propionitrile) as the initiator. The effect of the initiator amount, temperature and reaction time on the yield, softening temperature and molecular weight of CIRM has been established. The structure of the synthesized CIRM has been confirmed by IR and NMR spectroscopy.