Terms "colour" and "hue" in sociolect of Ukrainian fans

: pp. 110 - 114
L'viv Ivan Franko National University

The article describes specifics of functioning of art terms – colour and hue – in the sociolect of football supporters. The fans speech nominations concerning colours are analyzed. The article reveals the associations lying in the naming. The author analyzes the functioning of colour vocabulary in the texts of fans’ folklore (scansion, slogans, songs etc.).

Term vocabulary of many spheres of knowledge functions in sociolect of Ukrainian football fans [14], among that is art terminology [12, 15].The aim of this research is to find out the specific of the use of terms of fine arts – hue and colour – in the speech of representatives of one of the most massyouth subcultures in Ukraine [22]–soccerfans. Among other tasks that will be examined in the article are features of the use of colour names in fan’s sociolect and functioning of colour terms in texts of fan’s folklore.

Absence of analysis of the systems of sociolect of soccer fans in Ukrainian linguistics, and, in particular, application of scientific terminology here, predetermines actuality of research. Although terminology of fine art was the subject of detailed consideration in dissertation and numerous publications of Bohdan Mychailyshyn [8], however the aspect of functioning of art terms in social dialects was not considered. This article is an attempt to consider the question about the specific of lexical facilities of fan’s sociolect – elements that present its essence and distinguish the speech of this community group from public speech [11, 13].

The concept of hues of club, club colours, is one of basic in the language picture of the world of football fans of the entire world. Hues of football clubs have already been not only the simplest means of authentication of players of commands-rivals. Club colours are one of the major attributes of soccer commands, their symbols, by which football clubs are known, the same as known firms and companies are known in the world by their corporate colours. Club hues are represented in the basic attribute of both soccer commands – form of players, emblems of club and their fans - flags, scarfs, t-shirts and others like that. Colours of club are means of visual-verbalauth entication of soccer fans, in fact, club hues are at the same time the nominations-nicknames of commands in fan’s subculture and the names offans of corresponding club. Consideration of specific of functioning of colour vocabulary in sociolect of Ukrainian soccer fans should be begun from definitions of lexemes hue and colour in the lexicographic sources (terminological, general linguistic and encyclopaedic of fine art). The dictionary of art terms gives such special definitions of term colour: "1) one of the fixed assets of fine art that represents (in unity with a chiaroscuro) material properties of the world; 2) quality of the separate coloured tone in the ensemble of art work or motif" [23, p. 291]. The encyclopaedic reference dictionary-book of fine art offers such information about a concept hue: "substance of organic origin that has a certain colour and is intended for colouring of different materials (skin, paper, fabric and others like that). After grinding with oi l(or with other units) forms the paint. A hue is synthetic or vegetable or animal origin". [9, p. 61-62], and about a concept colour is such definition: " (lat. paint) composition of paint, formed by a fewpaints; in the special meaning - one of facilities of fine art due to that material properties(in combination with a chiaroscuro) of the world are represented; quality of the separate coloured tone is in the ensemble of art work or motif. An artist finds out substantial and characteristic with colour, as well as through other elements of artistic form. He uses a colour as composition factor, asauxiliary means of vivid description and others like that. A colour has been important in the mythological and sacral systems of many people of the world during millenniums – especially in folk ceremonies, divine service, heraldry, decoratively-applied art and others like that. Its symbolics has been changed during centuries, predefined by ethnocultural features. In Ukraine the symbolics of colour played an enormous role and varied depending on the designated objects, regional features, traditions". [9, p. 228-229].

Dictionary of Ukrainian of 11 volumes interprets a lexeme colour so: “1) light tone of something; colouring; 2) usually pl., metaphorical - are expressive facilities of language, music, theatre art etc". [18, Vol. ІV, p. 225]. According to DU, hue is "1) colour, colouring; 2) metaphorical - it is character, tone, colour, manner, tint of exposition, implementation; usually pl. - are expressive facilities of language, music, theatre art; 3) rarely - the same, that paint" [16, Vol. I, p. 104]; The large explanatory dictionary of modern Ukrainian duplicates definitions of these concepts, that are offered in DU (see hue [1, p. 37], colour [1, p. 441]). The same semantics of hue is marked in Dictionary of Ukrainian of 20 volumes. [19, p. 361-362].

The etymologic dictionary of Ukrainian gives information about the origin of these names : a hue is a "paint, colour [nap; uniform, livery],

Ancient a hue (ХVІ century); Bulg. – is a hue "bagretc; cloak of bright colour", Pol. barwa, Czech. barva, Vl. barba, Slov. Barva "paint"; -through Polish and Slovakia mediation is adopted from a middle up German language; Svn. varwe, Dvn. Farawa "Ts". origin from Pgerm. *fahrwa "coloured", related to Dind. Prśni - "pinnated", Greek. Περχυός "Ts". Compare barma, paint" [2, Vol. 1, p. 140-141]; colour - "[colour] . Bulg. Of koler, Czech. kolor, Mold. kolor, Schv. kolor, Slov. kolor; they are borrowed from Latin; lat. Color (< colos) "colour; paint" compared with Dind. Saraһ "creams; scum on the boiled milk", Dvn helan to "hide", thus, the primitive meaning of "coverage" (also and coloured)" is assumed [2, Vol. 2, p. 513].

The dictionary of Ukrainian of Boris Grinchenko gives accordance to the word colour - "colour" [14, Vol. ІІ, p. 269], and translates a lexeme hue so: a "1) paint, colour…); naps on the wool; 3) uniform. Cossack hue tries on, weapon prepares. Hol. І. 10. Livreya. Servants in golden hues walk on a market. К. Dosv 21. [16, Vol. I, p. 29]". Dictionary of Ukrainian of ХVІ - the first half of ХVІІ century fixes three senses of word hue - "1. Colour, hue; .(animal colouring of hair cover) flush. 2. Clothing, full-dress uniform, livery ; Chasuble, ωдћанїє ,ωдєжда: dress, paint, coat, clothes (1627 ЛБ 109); челядъ позосталую протестаньтис з баръвыо дерлъ и стрелбу од них забрал (Lutsk, 1650 Arch JZR 3/IV, 439). . 3. Sign, feature" [20, Issue 2, p. 21]. In materials to the dictionary of writing and book Ukrainian of XV – XVIII century of Yevhen Tymchenko lexeme hue is explained so: "1. Colour, paint. 2. Clothes. She walked in sky hue, that is blue light. 180. 3. Livery. Servants increase, hues celebrate. Arch JZR. ІІ, 225(I. Vysh.). For work of hue for servants it is paid to tailor 3 p. Dn. Khan. 145". [21, Book 1, p. 43]. Ivan Оhiyenko gives such semantics of word hue in the Etymologic semantic dictionary of Ukrainian: "colour; from ancient German varwe. Lexicon in 1627 on a century 11 “Glister is a hue". Lex. 1627. 452: My hue. Lex. 1627. 209: Clothes, hue. Hue (Czech barva) and colour (from lat. Color through Pol. kolor) – used variously, determine a colour; our old word is a blossom; an object is a paint, old paint or paint from German Farbe. He bought the paint of green colou r(colour) ". [7, Vol. 1, p. 120].

Among the quoted meanings of lexemes colour and hue the third meaning of lexeme hue is the nearest due to semantics used in fan’s sociolect, that is in Dictionary of B. Grinchenko and Etymologic dictionary, and also the second of the fixed meanings in Dictionary of Ukrainianof ХVІ – the first half of ХVІІ century, Materials to the dictionary of Ye. Тymchenko and Etymologic-semantic dictionary of І. Оhiyenko. Exactly according to semantics "uniform, clothings", paing attention

To the specific of soccer realities, it is necessary to examine as an official form of football players, fans push off mostly, speaking about the colours of soccer clubs.

Digression in history of development of football gave an opportunity to find out, that tradition of the use of club hues was founded in Great Britain in 1891, when English Soccer league had set the requirement, that every club should chose primary colours which his players would play during socce rmatches, and in future adhered to the standard in relation to their use [5]. Every soccer command could have from one to three own colours. Most commands chose coloured gamut of county or city from that came from, it was represented in their emblems. However not all determined with the hues at once: the facts are known, when clubs changed the colours not once; their choice and combination were absolutely spontaneous and explained by nothing for soccer commands. However usually it is exactly known why that or other club has such hues.

The Ukrainian soccer commands use mostly two or three colours, however it is not always possible to set exactly motivation of selection of those or these hues, as well as also to educe, what association is based in nominations-nicknames of Ukrainian football clubs due to coloured feature. Such commands of Ukrainian higher and first league have two components-colours in composition of nicknames : Lviv "Carpathians" are green-white; Kyiv "Dynamo" - white-blue; Donetsk "Shakhtar" - orange-black, bright orange-black; Kharkiv "Metalist" – blue-yellow; Zakarpattia "Hoverla" -yellow-blue; Lutsk "Volyn" - white-raspberry, white-red; Poltava "Vorskla" - white-green; Ternopil "Nyva" - yellow-green; Chernivtsi "Bukovyna" - yellow-black; Odesa "Chornomorets" – black-blue; Kryvyi Rih "Kryvbas" - red-white; Kyiv "Arsenal" – red-blue; Donetsk "Metallurgist" – blue-white; football club "Lviv" - blue-gold; Luhansk "Zorya" – black-white; Mariupol "Illichivets" - orange-blue; Striy "Skala" - green-raspberry; ovidiopoland "Dnister" and Kirovohrad "Zirka" are red-yellow; Rivne" Veres" - white-black. Three constituents are used in the names-nicknames of such Ukrainian football clubs: Dnepropetrovsk "Dnipro" – dark blue-white-blue, dark blue-white-blue; Zaporizhzhya "Metallurgist" - red-yellow-black; Simferopol "Tavriya" - white-red-blue; football club "Oleksandrija" -yellow-green-black; Kyiv "CSKA" - white-red-black. An exception is Odesa "Chornomorets", that together with nickname formed of two names of colours, has still one component of colour name-nickname –ultramarine.

Characteristically, that the spectrum of hues is not too variousin the coloured nicknames of the Ukrainian soccer commands : the achromatism names are used – white and black and chromatic - red, orange, yellow, green, dark blue, blue, ultramarine; a few derivative names of colours, except for, bright orange, gold and raspberry (it is fixed in world practice among nicknames of football clubs , however some colour names, that originate from the names of objects, substances, in particular: creamy, canary, pink, tangerine, claret, succinic-chocolate, pomegranate, purple, colour electrician [5, 6, 10].

Many Ukrainian soccer commands, like the clubs of Europe, followed the historical and geographical features of locality: both in the choice of the name and in the selection of colours, in particular Lutsk "Volyn" chose the raspberry-white colours of emblem of Volyn Uzhhorod "Hoverla" - yellow-blue colours of emblem of Zakarpattia, ovidiopoland "Dnister" – red-yellow colours of Ovidiopolya’s flag. Natural specific of certain part of Ukraine is taken into account in colours of "Carpathians" (greenery of Carpathians mountains), Donetsk "Shakhtar" (ore and black waste banks of Donbas), Odesa "Chornomorets" (ultramarine hue of the sea). 

Orange-black or bright orange-black hues of Donetsk "Shakhtar" symbolize: orange is a sun, hot flaming light, blitheness [17, p. 124], and black is coal waste banks of Donbas. Such combination of colours is extraordinarily original, in fact analogues are not in colours of none other club in world of football. 

White colour of club hues of Lviv "Carpathians" meanslight, cleanness and gladness [3, p. 38; 17, p. 24], and green – hope, youth, force, hardness, firmness, hidden energy [3, p. 242; 17, p. 124], and also greenery of the Carpathians’ forests - the greatest mountain lea on the West of Ukraine.

An analogical coloured choice has been done by Poltava "Vorskla" in recent years, explaining it by white-green heraldic traditions of Poltava. In Ukrainian championship "Carpathians" has a nickname "green-white", and "Vorskla” - white-green". The same hues of Lviv and Poltava commands are additional cause for permanent oppositions of fans of two clubs. This question is fundamental, especially for Lviv citizens, and they are categorical in their expressions: "Green-white hues are not deserving for collective farmer"! (in this fan’s text of "Carpathians" another nickname of Poltava club is used –“collective farmers”, that originates from the first name of Poltava’s command is “Collective Farmer", that it had in 1955-1965 as a representative of sporting society "Ear"). For times of independent Ukrainian championship "Vorskla" changed club hues twice, and this "coloured vagueness" of Poltava football players is ridiculed by Lviv club’s fans.

The symbolics of Kyiv "Dynamo" has two colours: white and dark blue-blue. In 1924, when sporting society of "Dynamo", that was presented by the same name command, was created, white-blue hues were ratified in a charter and had to symbolize "light and clean opinions of workers-officials of cheka”, whose club "Dynamo" was then. During existence of Dynamo club blue and dark blue colours, that have a symbolics of sky and water, calmness, peace [4, p. 55]), and similarity toelectricity is associated with them, and accordingly - to the dynamo-machine, have been competing with each other, but combination with white - the colour of light, cleanness and gladness has been unchanging [3, p. 38; 15, p. 24]. In 90-th years yellow was adding to the main paints that symbolized scelestial light and riches of bread field [4, p. 55], and that, obviously, in combination with blue, had to create the analogy to the colours of the Ukrainian national flag; the return to theprimitive variant - white-blue colours has taken place recently. 

Some Ukrainian clubs succeeded to save the colours during all history of command (for example, "Dynamo" (Kyiv)), others – changed paints: because of social and political circumstances (for example, because of initiated by party guidance of force confluence in 1982 two Lviv clubs - "SKA" and "Carpathians" - the incorporated command "SKA – Carpathians" had the white-red paints of army, but not Carpathian green-white; the lastactually were forbidden - police watched intently, that a green-white attribute failed to appear on tribunes) or financial-economical (due to the change of sponsors). Generally, fans extremely negatively react on the attempts to change club colours. For example, fans of Poltava "Vorskla" appealed to the proprietors of club about the return of club’s hues and old emblem with such words: "Green-white forever"! and "How many emblems you draw, better than it is not". Cases of change of club colours or command symbolics, were not single phenomenon in Ukrainian football, especially in 90-th years, did not find understanding and support among fans, who considered that it was necessary to keep loyalty to the paints of native command, to value history of club and support its traditions.

Importance of club paints is confirmed in texts of fan’s scansions, charges and songs that sound on stadiums; as, for example, in folklore of fans of Lviv "Carpathians" : "Green-white are our colours. We are invincible, sabres up"; "Sways wind our flags; Green-white are their colours". Colours of club are extraordinarily important during organization of support of favourite command : "Forward, "Carpathians", forward to the fight! Your fans are together with you and your green-white paints are in our heart forever"! (Lviv "Carpathians"); "Blue-blue is the strongest" (Kyiv "Dynamo"). There are lines in texts of official hymns of some Ukrainian commands, where the colour nickname of club is used, for example: "Hey up! Green-white flags. Scarfs fly all around - "Carpathians" won again!”. Hues of club are sacred for the association of fans, in fact, they represent history, traditions of certain command. It is accepted to say that football players protect colours of certain club.

Thus, as the analysis showed, terms colour and hue function in sociolect of Ukrainian fans as independent units, and in composition of proof connections of words (club colours, colours of club, club hues, hues of club), and also colour names and their various combinations are actively used - mainly in the nicknames of commands and in the nominations of fans of particular football clubs. In basis of the name by means of colour vocabulary the associations, related to the official colours of club, geographical features of certain locality are mostly fixed. Texts of fan’s folklore certify high frequency of the use of nicknames-colour names of soccer teams.

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Protsyk I. Terms "colour" and "hue" in sociolect of Ukrainian fans // Website of TC STTS: Herald of L'viv Polynechnic National University "Problems of Ukrainian Terminology". – 2013. – # 765.