Influence of geological structures on the nature of riverbed displacements for the rivers of the Dnister basin upper part

https://doi.org/10.23939/jgd2019.02.024
Received: September 05, 2019
Revised: November 04, 2019
Accepted: December 05, 2019
1
Lviv Polytechnic National University
2
Lviv Polytechnic National University
3
Lviv Polytechnic National University
4
Lviv Polytechnic National University
5
Lviv Polytechnic National University

Aim of work is to investigate the influence of the Precarpathian bend and the Volynian-Podolian upland for the nature of displacement of the Dnister River tributaries and to determine stability of river channels. The object of this research is the Dnister River and its left and right tributaries. Considering the main factors influencing the nature of the horizontal riverbed displacements caused by both natural and anthropogenic factors, special attention is focused on the geological structures in the area on which Dnister River and its tributaries flow. Methods. Applying the software package ArcGIS authors had implemented the monitoring for a 100 year period using various topographical, geological, ground maps, and space images. For monitoring of displacements of the riverbeds of right and left bank tributaries of the Dnister there were used: topographic maps at scales 1:100000 and 1:75000 (Austrian period – 1886, 1910, Polish period –1930, the Soviet period – 1985, 1989); space images Landsat 7 (2000), Landsat 8 (2014) and Sentinel 2 (2016, 2017); and soil map scale 1:200000. It allows declaration about the different nature of the displacements. Results. The Dnister River flows on the border of two structures - the Precarpathian bend and the Volynian-Podolian upland. The right bank tributaries (Bystrytsia, Limnytsia, Stryi, and others) that begin in the Carpathians, cross the outer and inner boundaries of the Precarpathian bend, and are characterized by riverbed stability in the mountainous part, with multithreading and considerable meandering (especially for the Stryi River) within the Precarpathian bend. Lithological deposits have a significant influence at the mouth of the Stryi River. For these tributaries, according to the results of the study, large horizontal displacements are observed, they extend for: Limnytsia river – 500 m, Bystrytsia river – 580 m, Stryi River – 1200 m. The left bank tributaries, which are located on the Volynian-Podolian upland, include Zolota Lypa, Seret, Zbruch, Smotrych, and Strypa rivers. They are highly sinuos but much more stable in horizontal displacements. The maximum displacements for these rivers are 300-380 m. Scientific novelty. Investigation includes the influence of geological structures on the displacements of the left and right bank tributaries of the Dnister River and an analysis of the basic mathematical expressions that are used to evaluate the stability of the riverbeds. The practical significance. The results of monitoring riverbed deformation processes have to be considered while solving tasks related to riverbed processes, namely for: development and building of hydraulic engineering facilities, design of power transmission network when crossing rivers, development of gas transmission pipelines, determination of flood hazard zones and consequences of destruction after flash floods or seasonal floods, establishment of boundaries of land conservation areas, management of recreation activities, monitoring of the condition of frontier lands, and establishment of the border along the midstream of rivers.

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