Theoretical foundations of public administration in the sphere of formation of national identity

: pp. 24 - 36
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine

Statement of the problem. Ukraine is presently going through a severe structural crisis. Consolidating its populace on the foundation of efficient public administration in the area of Ukrainian national identity formation will enable its escape. To date, there is a need to determine the theoretical foundations of public administration in the field of the formation of national identity. Its goal is to unite Ukrainian society, which is now split along regional, racial, religious and social lines.

Analysis of recent research and publications. Among the foreign scientific literature on the outlined problems,  the  works  of  the  following  scientists,  namely: Kh. Arendt, P. Berger, E. Bubuer, E. Giddens, E. Smith, H. Ortega-i-Gasset, E. Hobs- bawm, F. Fukuyama, R. Shporliuk and others deserve special attention. It is advisable to note generalizing studies on this issue by the following Ukrainian researchers, namely: V. Maiboroda, Yu. Rymarenko, M. Rozumnyi, M. Stepyko, O. Zabuzhko, M. Riabchuk, G. Kasianov, M. Kozlovets, O. Kozubenko, N. Kovtun, H. Nykytiuk, O. Rudakevych, Marynovych, V. Kremin, V. Tkachenko and others.

Highlighting previously unsolved parts of a common problem. Development of the theoretical foundations of public administration for the construction of Ukrainian national identity entails combining various national identity-formation strategies based on political and ethnic nationalism.

The purpose of the study is to determine the theoretical foundations of public administration in the field of the formation of Ukrainian national identity.

Statement of the basic material. National identity is a basic collective identity, which includes other collective identities and serves as the basis for the formation of a nation. E. Smith considers the following main features of national identity: 1) historical territory, or native land; 2) common myths and historical memory; 3) common mass and public culture; 4) common legal rights and obligations for all members; 5) common economy with the ability to move within the national territory.

National identity is a collective identity that encompasses the entire population of a given territory and connects different regions of the country. National identity also unites representatives of different religions and ethnic groups, where a common historical memory serves as a necessary basis for understanding national unity and the prospects for the development of the nation. National identity also implies awareness of a single political community within one state. Thus, a nation arises as a community of people who obey common laws and institutions within a given territory.

After independence, Ukraine was dominated by a liberal theoretical approach. It provided for the formation of a “political nation”, where the main subject of politics and public administration was a person. The main subject of state policy was the protection of human rights and freedoms. However, this theoretical approach ignored the collective rights of Ukrainians as a titular nation. The Ukrainian people were alienated from property and power in the state. Therefore, ethnic Ukrainians usually treat their state as a foreign political institution and demonstrate a low level of trust in it.

The Russian aggression of 2014–2023 showed the shortcomings of the concept of a “political nation”. The Russian national minority in Crimea and Donbas largely supported Russia’s annexation of Ukraine. And representatives of other national minorities also focus mainly on their historical homelands.

National identity implies the formation of a nation as an ethnic community or territorial community based on citizenship. The concept of the state is associated primarily with state institutions, which have a monopoly on the enforcement and collection of taxes within the territory. Instead, the nation means, first of all, cultural and political ties that unite in a single political community all those who have a common historical culture and homeland. Therefore, it is necessary to combine theoretical approaches to the formation of a political nation and an ethnic nation, basing national identity on a certain system of spiritual values and ideals. The Ukrainian national notion may serve as the primary theoretical foundation for the development of national identity.

Conclusion and directions for future research. Ukraine is characterized by the vagueness and ambivalence of national identity, which indicates the incompleteness of the processes of formation of the Ukrainian nation. Therefore, today Ukraine needs to develop the theoretical foundations of public administration in the field of forming Ukrainian national identity to complete the process of forming the Ukrainian nation, to give the Ukrainian character to its state successfully. National identity is a basic collective identity, which includes other collective identities (territorial, regional, class, religious, ethnic, political, geopolitical, and civilizational), and serves as the basis for the formation of a modern nation as a post-industrial community.

Combining the ideas of “civil nation” and “ethnic nation” should serve as the theoretical foundation for how national identity is formed in Ukraine. The completion of the formation of the Ukrainian political community as a territorial nation based on citizenship, which relies on the cultural and historical heritage of the Ukrainian titular nation, will be made possible by the development of Ukrainian national identity based on a combination of ethnic and political nation concepts while preserving the national and cultural autonomy of its national minorities. The spiritual components must be emphasized when creating a national identity. A particular set of spiritual values and ideals that can be established based on the spiritual component of the Ukrainian national notion is said to be the foundation of national identity.

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