Department of Archaeology and special branches of historical science Ivan Franko National University of Lviv

From ancient times, mankind has tried to protect their settlement from predators and
enemies. This promoted to creation of comfortable living conditions. This contributed to the
emergence of fortified settlements. On the territory that archaeologists associate with the Slavs
tribe Drevlyany, settlements began to appear in the IX century. when the Great Migration of
the Slavs was finally completed. Bohdan Zvizdetsky, researcher of drevlyan՚s antiquity, provided
information about 20 fortified settlements between the Horyn and Teteriv rivers. Such
settlements are called in Ukrainian «horodyshche».
Unfortunately, researchers rarely turned to archaeological research of the fortifications
of drevlyan՚s fortified settlements. They primarily paid attention to the filling of cultural layer
and archaeological excavation of ancient cemeteries. Therefore, few fortifications have been
studied: Rayky, Secont fortified settlement in Korosten, Malyn and Third fortified settlement
in Korosten.
In general, it is worth mentioning the researchers who studied and analyzed the
fortifications of the settlements of Kyiveian Rus՚ in the IX - XIII centuries. P. Rappaport was
one of the first to pay attention to the construction of defensive bulwarks in his opinion, main
types of wooden structures were palisade and the pillar structure, when horizontal logs are
clamped between two verticals, or in the grooves of one vertical. Another archaeologist who
paid attention to the study of fortifications was M. Kuchera. In his opinion, the most used was
a framework structure. As a basis of a design, he put three-, or four-walled framework. They
could be separate segments of the defense wall, or be structurally combined into a single line.
Another option for fortifications, the researcher considered the walls of the pillar structure.
Archaeologist Yuri Morgunov is also tried to study of fortifications of Kyievian Rus՚. He singled
out separate elements: Escarpments; ditches; wooden-earthen defense constructions. In the
middle of XX century. military engineer B. Sperk considered various types of defensive walls
of fortified settlements of Ancient Rus՚. He wrote that, the main types of walls were three- or
four-walled framework. They could be separate segments of the defense wall, or be structurally
combined into a single line. Also, architect Vadym Lukyanchenko was engaged in architectural
analysis. He turned his attention to the construction of wooden and earth defense construction.
According to him, the earliest type of fortifications was a palisade, and later there were several
types of fortifications: three, or four-walled frameworks.
Based on the work of other researchers, as well as on analogies from the monuments
of Poland (Motych; Naszacowice; Zawada Lanckorońska), Czech Republic (Uherské Hradiště-
Rybárny; Breclav-Pohansko; Vlastislav) , Slovakia (Spišske Tomášovce; Pobedim), Germany
(Behren-Lübchin; Lenzen; Oldenburg; Berlin-Spandau) and Austria (Gars-Thunau), was
created a graphic reconstruction of the south-eastern section of the defensive wall of fortified
settlement №3 in Korosten. The main structure was a 4-walled framework. We assume that the
diameter of the deck could be 250 mm. In addition, frameworks, as the main structure of the
defensive wall, were also found on the early medieval fortified settlement near Olevsk, which
is also considered as drevlyan՚s fortress. Hypothetical size of each framework could reach 2x2
m in plan and up to 3 m in height. On the top of framework could be a palisade. It was protection for the defenders of the fortress. It was system of fences. The diameter of the deck
of a single pile could be 200 mm and a height of 1.8 m. The difference in the height of individual
piles formed loopholes. The piles were located on the inside, near the outer wall of the
framework. A similar construction can be traced on the already mentioned settlement of
Motych and Gars-Thunau.
For construction of wooden and earthen construction was required a wide range of tools.
It was partially represented by archaeological finds: wooden shovels with metal shells, axes of
various types, saws, etc.
Despite the fact that other segments of the defensive line of third fortified settlement in
Korosten have not been studied. Based on the plan published by I. Samoilovsky, it is possible
to draw a conclusion that such a construction of the defensive wall was not found along the
entire defensive perimeter. So, the section on the eastern side adjacent to the steep cliffs on the
Uzh river does not have clear protective fortifications. Therefore, Therefore, it was possible
that this area was fortified only with a palisade. Also, according to I. Samoilovsky's plan, the
western and northern parts of the defensive perimeter are surrounded by a powerful bulwark,
which most likely had a more complex structure with larger parameters of fortifications.
Unfortunately, the worst studied element of the lines of defense of the settlements of the
IX - X centuries is the entrance remains. Therefore, were used analogies from well-researched
monuments in Poland, Germany, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In all cases, it had pillar
structure withn the gate tower. It has an exclusively observation function, because they do not
have loopholes. That is why in visualization gate structures is also only as observation and
guard points. The outer wall of such a gatehouse could be made of boards. The volume of the
watchtower could be covered with a gabled roof. This design required the installation of a roof
ridge and the placement of wooden brackets for the stability of the structure. A wooden bridge
over the defensive moat could be located in front of the entrance, which would facilitate access
to the settlement in peacetime.

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