Legal restrictions are a specific method of legal regulation

Mykhailo KELMAN, Rostislav KELMAN "Legal restrictions are a specific method of legal regulation".

Lviv Polytechnic National University, Institute of Jurisprudence and Psychology
Educational and Scientific Institute of Law, Psychology and innovative education National University “Lviv Polytechnic“, Master student

Abstract. The analysis of scientific sources provides grounds to assert that legal regulation is the regulation of social relations carried out through law and the entire set of legal means. The concept of "regulation" (from Latin regulo - rule) implies organization, adjustment, and bringing something into conformity with something else. In our view, to regulate means to define the behavior of individuals and their collectives, to direct their functioning and development, to provide certain limits, and to organize them purposefully.

Alongside this, some scholars relate the term "regulation" solely to law as a system of norms and some other specific legal phenomena (legal relations, acts of law implementation). They disagree with the existing understanding of the regulation of social relations as the rigid and authoritative norming by the state and law, as, in their opinion, the category of "regulation" is not synonymous with coercion, rigid, and authoritative prescription. The legal norm establishes only a model of relations in which social interests must be correlated with the interests of society members, and alongside this, law widely uses such means of influencing people's behavior as stimulation, encouragement, granting rights, etc.

It is argued that to transition to the definition of legal regulation, it is necessary to refer to the theory of law, which provides explanations for the concepts of "legal influence" and "legal regulation". Legal influence is considered a broader concept, as it includes the normative-organizational influence on social relations not only through a system of special legal means (those that directly regulate these relations - legal norms, legal relations, acts of implementation and application of law), but also through other legal phenomena - legal consciousness, legal culture, legal principles, law-making process, etc.

        A proposed definition states that legal regulation is the authoritative influence on social relations carried out by the state through all legal means for the purpose of their organization, establishment, protection, and development. Besides such (regulatory) influence, law also exerts a spiritual-ideological influence on individual and social consciousness (both in the process of legal regulation and beyond).

"Restrictions" and "prohibitions" as legal categories have been analyzed. The etymology of the words "restriction" and "prohibition," their relationship to each other and to adjacent and synonymous concepts, have been explored, and an original interpretation of the content and essence of these concepts has been proposed.

A number of features characterizing restrictions and prohibitions as legal categories have been identified (defined in normative legal acts; established to prevent potential abuses of law; associated with a "narrowing" of an individual's legal status; presuppose a specific model of behavior, specifically restrictions entail active behavior, meaning to do only what is defined within limits; prohibitions entail passive behavior, meaning to refrain from doing prohibited actions; they perform a protective function in social relations; non-compliance with them is accompanied by a negative response from the state.

The concept, characteristics, classification, and a systematic analysis of restrictions and prohibitions as means of legal regulation have been defined. Based on the analysis of dictionary, reference, encyclopedic literature, as well as specialized legal sources, the article formulates original definitions of "restriction". The specificity of these particular restrictions and prohibitions lies in their special area of application (they apply to individuals when exercising their powers within the civil service); they apply to specific subjects (directly to individuals who have the legal status of civil servants); their application is determined by a special purpose; they are characterized by specific, comprehensive normative legal regulation; their application is ensured by state coercion.

            Distinctive features inherent to restrictions and prohibitions in the field of legal regulation have been identified: individual character; preventive nature; limiting aspect; coercive nature; the presence of a special subject; connection to professional activity; relation to delict norms, and their essence has been explained.

            The normative basis for defining and applying restrictions and prohibitions as means of legal regulation has been characterized (substantive legislation, procedural legislation, sub-legislative normative legal acts). A classification of restrictions and prohibitions has been conducted, and it is proposed to conditionally divide them into three groups (personal, property, and mixed).     

1. Syrota I. M. (2001) Pravo sotsialnoho zabezpechennia v Ukraini [The law of social security in Ukraine]: pidruchnyk. Kharkiv: Odisei Publ. 420 p. [in Ukrainian].

2. Slovnyk ukrainskoi movy: v 11 t.  (1977) [Dictionary of the Ukrainian language: in 11 volumes.]. AN Ukrainskoi RSR, In-t movoznav. im. O. O. Potebni; redkol.: I. K. Bilodid (holova) ta in. Kyiv: Naukova dumka Publ, 1970–1980. Vol. 8: Pryroda-Riakhtlyvyi. Red. tomu: V. O. Vynnyk ta in. 927 p. [in Ukrainian].

3. Zahalna teoriia prava: pidruchnyk (2015). [General theory of law]. Za zah. red. M.I. Koziubry. Kyiv: Vaite Publ. 392 p. [in Ukrainian].

4. Yurydychnyi slovnyk [Legal dictionary]. URL: (Accessed: 06.02.2024). [in Ukrainian].

5. Zahalna teoriia derzhavy i prava (1997) [General theory of the state and law] Za red. V. V. Kopieichykova. Kyiv: Yurinkom Publ. 320 р. [in Ukrainian].

6. Tarakhovych T. I. (2010) Pravove rehuliuvannia ta pravotvorchist: spivvidnoshennia poniat [Legal regulation and law-making: correlation of concepts]. Derzhava i pravo. Vol.  49. P. 9–16. [in Ukrainian].

7. Platonenko O. S. (2017) Pravove rehuliuvannia suspilnykh vidnosyn: teoretychni osnovy. Zaboroni zasoby rehuliuvannia suspilnykh vidnosyn [Legal regulation of social relations: theoretical foundations. Prohibited means of regulating social relations]. Pravove rehuliuvannia suspilnykh vidnosyn: aktualni problemy ta vymohy sohodennia. Materialy mizhnarodnoi naukovo-praktychnoi konferentsii. Zaporizhzhia: Zaporizka miska hromadska orhanizatsiia «Istyna». P. 16–18/. [in Ukrainian].

8. Rabinovych P. M. (2021). Osnovy teorii ta filosofii prava [Basics of theory and philosophy of law]. Navchalnyi posibnyk. Lviv: Vydavnytstvo LOBF «Medytsyna i pravo» Publ. 256 p. [in Ukrainian].

9. Kurakin,O. M. (2016) Mekhanizm pravovoho rehuliuvannia: teoretyko-pravova model (2016) [Mechanism of legal regulation: theoretical and legal model]: avtoref. dys. ... d-ra yuryd. nauk: 12.00.01. Kharkivskyi natsionalnyi universytet vnutrishnikh sprav. Kharkiv. 40 p. [in Ukrainian].

10. Chemodurova  A. (2020) Pravove rehuliuvannia ta yoho efektyvnist u suchasnomu sviti [Legal regulation and its effectiveness in the modern world]. Pidpryiemnytstvo. Hospodarstvo i pravo. 2020. No 4. P. 262–267. [in Ukrainian].

11. Zahalna teoriia derzhavy i prava: pidruchnyk dlia studentiv yurydychnykh vyshchykh navchalnykh zakladiv (2009). [General theory of the state and law: a textbook for students of legal higher educational institutions]. M. V. Tsvik, O. V. Petryshyn, L. V. Avramenko ta in. Za red. d-ra yuryd. nauk, prof., akad. APrN Ukrainy M. V. Tsvika, d-ra yuryd. nauk, prof., akad. APrN Ukrainy O. V. Petryshyna. Kharkiv: Pravo Publ. 584 p. [in Ukrainian].

12. Teoriia derzhavy i prava: pidruchnyk (2011). [Theory of the state and law: a textbook]. Hida Ye. O., Bilozorov Ye. V., Zavalnyi A. M. ta in.; za zah. red. Ye. O. Hidy. Kyiv: FOP O. S. Lipkan Publ. 260 p. [in Ukrainian].

13. Vediernikov Yu. A. (2008) Teoriia derzhavy i prava: navchalnyi posibnyk. [Theory of the state and law: a study guide]. Kyiv: Znannia Publ. 333 p. [in Ukrainian].

14. Protsevskyi O. I. (2014) Zaborona prymusovoi pratsi yak skladova pryntsypu svobody pratsi [Prohibition of forced labor as a component of the principle of freedom of labor]. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats Kharkivskoho natsionalnoho pedahohichnoho universytetu im. H. S. Skovorody. Pravo.  Vol. 22. P. 30–40. [in Ukrainian].

15. Konstytutsiia Ukrainy [Constitution of Ukraine]. Baza danykh «Zakonodavstvo Ukrainy» / VR Ukrainy. URL: (Accessed: 06.02.2024). [in Ukrainian].

16. Nastiuk V. Ya.,  Bielievtseva  V. V. (2009) Administratyvno-pravovi rezhymy v Ukraini: monohrafiia [Administrative and legal regimes in Ukraine: monograph]. Kharkiv: Pravo Publ. 128 p. [in Ukrainian].

17. Polianskyy̆ T. T. (2013) Zlovzhyvannia  pravom (zahalnoteoretychne doslidzhennia): monohrafiia [Abuse of law (general theoretical study): monograph]. Kyiv: Redaktsiinyi zhurnal «Pravo Ukraïny»; Kharkiv: Pravo Publ. 376 p. [in Ukrainian].

18. Shymon O. M. (2018) Zarubizhnyi dosvid pravovoho rehuliuvannia ta zastosuvannia obmezhen i zaboron yak zasobiv zapobihannia administratyvnym pravoporushenniam, poviazanym z koruptsiieiu [Foreign experience of legal regulation and the application of restrictions and prohibitions as means of preventing administrative offenses related to corruption]. Aktualni problemy vitchyznianoi yurysprudentsii. No 3. P. 169–175. [in Ukrainian].

19. Zakon Ukrainy «Pro status narodnoho deputata Ukrainy» [The Law of Ukraine «On the Status of People's Deputy of Ukraine»]. Baza danykh «Zakonodavstvo Ukrainy» / VR Ukrainy. URL: (Accessed: 06.02.2024). [in Ukrainian].