Creation and development of human rights in ancient times

: 39-44

Turiansky Y. I. "Creation and development of human rights in ancient times"

member of the NKR Constitutional Court of Ukraine

The article deals with some historical periods of creation, development and formation of
a human rights institute. The basic ideas of the most outstanding philosophers of this period
are investigated. From the time of Ancient Greece, the concept of human rights, which is
reflected in the philosophical thought of philosophers of this period, began to emerge. The
perception of the place of the person in state and social life has changed. Philosophers such as
Heraclitus, Plato, and Aristotle laid the cornerstones in creating this phenomenon in antiquity.
Epicurus is an ancient Greek materialist philosopher, considered the creator of the
foundations of the philosophical concept of legal individualism and liberalism, as well as the
concept of ethics, which is utilitarian and optimistic. This philosopher viewed pearson as the
center, and each person in life should be responsible for the choice of their behavior. Thus, the
thinker considered individual freedom and a certain minimal autonomy of the person, calling
the person – “social atom”. And he put the emphasis on the coexistence of people in such a way
as not to harm each other. Mark Aurelius, who was the emperor, an ancient Roman Stoic
philosopher, is also called “the philosopher on the throne”. This philosopher was noted for the
implementation of moderate politics and in his reign showed respect for the people, the senate
and its members. The time of Aurelius's reign was called the “Senate renaissance”, since he
himself emphasized his humility to the senate, which at that time was the supreme imperial
power. The epicurist formed ideas for peaceful coexistence in society, so as not to harm
another for the common good. Seneca continued the idea of spiritual freedom and equality of
people, while forming the fundamental ideas of civil society. Mark Aurelius changed the
approach to slavery and founded the idea of liberalism, which was manifested during his rule.
Cicero emphasized the importance of laws and their observance, which was considered the
source of justice and the very soul of the state. The state was created in order to preserve the
principle of justice and equality before the law and must act in the interests and on behalf of
the people themselves.

1. Trofanchuk H. I. Istoriia vchen pro derzhavu i parvo [History of the doctrines of the state and
law]. Kiev: Mahistr. 2005. 256 р. 2. Demydenko H. H. Istoriia vchen pro derzhavu i pravo: pidruch. dlia
stud. yuryd. vyshch. navch. zakl. [History of the doctrine of state and law: textbook. for students. lawyer.
higher. teach. educat] Kharkiv: Konsum. 2004. 432 р. 3. Hrafskyi V. H.. Ystoryia polytycheskykh y
pravovykh uchenyi. [History of Political and Legal Doctrines]. Moscow: Velby: Prospect. 2007. 608 р.
4. Demydenko H. H., Petryshyna O. V. Istoriia vchen pro derzhavu i pravo [History of the doctrines of
the state and law]. Kharkiv: Pravo. 2009. 252 р. 5. Mark Tulii Tsytseron. Pro derzhavu; Pro zakony; Pro
pryrodu bohiv / per. z latyny V. Lytvynov [About the state; About laws; On the nature of the gods / trans.
from Latin V. Litvinov]. Kiev: Osnovy. 1988. 6. Tsytseron. Dyalohy o hosudarstve y zakonakh
[Dialogues about the state and laws]. Moscow: Moscow Publishing House hum. Universities. 1966. 483 р.
7. Kanarsh H. Yu. Sotsyalnaia spravedlyvost: fylosofskye kontseptsyy y rossyiskaia sytuatsyia [Social
justice: philosophical concepts and the Russian situation]. Moscow: 2011. 8. Tsytseron Mark Tullyi. O
hosudarstve. Dyalohy: O hosudarstve; O zakonakh [About the state. Dialogues: About the state; About
laws]. 1994. Moscow: Nauka, Ladomyr. 9. Ystoryia polytycheskykh y pravovykh uchenyi. Uchenyi dlia
vuzov. Yzd. 2-e, stereotypnoe. [History of political and legal doctrines. Teaching for universities. Ed. 2nd,
stereo]. Pod. obshch. Red. d.iu.n., profesora Nersesiansa. Moscow: Norma. 1998. 736 р. 10. Blokha Ya. Ye.
Katehoriia “spravedlyvist” u politychnii filosofii Marka Tuliia Tsytserona [The category of “justice” in
the political philosophy of Mark Tuliya Cicero]. Filosofski obrii. [Philosophical horizons]. 2017. No. 37.
P. 24–30. 11. Zharovska I. M. Teoriia vlady [Theory of power]. 2016. Kharkiv. Pravo