The possibility of effectively using carbazole as an improver of coumarone-indene resin for use as a modifier of petroleum bitumens is studied. All starting materials for the production of coumarone-indene-carbazole resin (CICR) were obtained from various products of the coal coking process. The influence of raw material composition (amount of carbazole added to an industrial indene-coumarone fraction) on resin yield and its modifying properties was studied.
The possibility of modification of BND 60/90 bitumen produced at JSC Ukrtatnafta (Kremenchuk, Ukraine) with maleic anhydride has been considered. The effect of maleic anhydride amount, process time and temperature on the operating characteristics of modified bitumen has been studied.
Aging peculiarities of paving bitumen, which was obtained by different ways, have been studied. Oxidized and residual bitumen produced from oils of Ukrainian deposits were used and the changes in the main characteristics of bitumen after 5 and 10 h of aging in a thin film at the temperature of 436 K have been determined and the processes occurred during the aging have been studied. Using infrared spectroscopy, the changes in the structural composition of the binder during aging have been analyzed.
The article is presenting a modification of bituminous binder with ecological epoxidized rapeseed oil (BERO) in the presence of the initiator (hardener). Adipic acid (AA), maleic anhydride (MA) and polyethylene polyamine (PEPA) were used as the initiators. The effect of modification temperature and, as well as initiator nature, on the bitumen properties was determined. Bitumen modified with BERO was evaluated by the following indicators: softening temperature, penetration, ductility, and adhesion to the glass.
The properties of fine-grained asphalt concrete and its modified by bio based epoxy rape oil (BERO) form were studied. Rapeseed oil epoxide (ROE) obtained from renewable and ecological raw materials, rapeseed oil in a composition with initiators (hardeners) was used as a modifier. It was found that the introduction of BERO in the amount of 3% of the mass. allows to increase indicators of limit of durability of asphalt concrete at compression at a temperature of 20 ° C and 50 ° C.
The main regularities of the modification with a rubber crumb for bitumen produced from the residuals of crude oils of Ukrainian deposits have been studied. The thermal stability of the rubber crumb has been examined using the derivatograpgy. The mechanism of bitumen modification with the rubber crumb at low and high temperatures has been established. The influence of technological factors on the main quality indices of modified bitumen has been studied. The changes in the group composition of the original and modified bitumen were found.
In this article the potentiality is proven for application of wastepaper sludge ash (WSA) as mineral powder for traditional hot asphalt concrete mix. For the comparative testing in this article the traditional limestone mineral powder is used. The chemical (oxide) composition of the aggregates was studied, while that was determined by means of DRON - 3.0 diffractometer. It was ascertained that CaO is present in wastepaper sludge ash in sufficient quantity, while it provides for utilization of this waste material as an aggregate for asphalt concrete.
Today there is a problem of rational use of coal coking by-products, which can be partially solved by obtaining a variety of polymeric materials on their basis. The presence of valuable reactive substances (indene, coumarone, styrene, etc.) in this type of raw materials contributes to the solving of the problem. An important aspect is the area of application of the resulting polymers.
The effect of factors on the process of obtaining phenol-cresol-formaldehyde resin (PhCR-F) has been studied. By using empirical evidence, the adequate experimental statistical-mathematical (ESM) model has been developed. Based on this model, the optimal values of the process factors for obtaining PhCR-F have been identified, bringing about both high yield and softening point of the resin. Data predicted on the basis of the ESM model were compared with empirical evidence about PhCR-F preparation.
The phenol-cresol-formaldehyde resin (PhCR-F) obtained from phenolic fraction of coal tar has been synthesized via the polycondensation method of “raw” phenols with formaldehyde. The modification of road bitumen by this resin was carried out. PhCR-F in different concentrations was found to be effectively used as a modifier of road bitumen. It was shown that PhCR-F is an effective adhesive additive for road bitumen. The structural types of the oxidized and modified bitumen were determined according to the group-chemical composition and calculated criteria.