formaldehyde

Production of Bitumen Modified with Low-Molecular Organic Compounds from Petroleum Residues.4. Determining the Optimal Conditions for Tar Modification with Formaldehyde and Properties of the Modified Products

The effect of factors on the process of chemical modification of tar with formaldehyde using a sulfuric acid as the catalyst has been studied. By using experimental results, the adequate statistical-mathematical (ESM) model has been developed. Based on this model, the optimal values on the process of chemical modification of tar with formaldehyde using a sulfuric acid as the catalyst have been identified, bringing about optimal penetration value and softening point of the modified tars.

Production of Bitumen Modified with Low-Molecular Organic Compounds from Petroleum Residues. 3. Tar Modified with Formaldehyde

The chemical modification of tar with formaldehyde as 37% aqueous solutionhas been studied in the presence of the catalysts. Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide and acid tar were used as the catalysts. The effect of the catalyst nature and amount, as well as temperature, process time and initial components ratio on the softening point, penetration, brittle point and adhesion to crushed stone has been determined. The structure of the modified tars was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. The structural-group composition was determined.

Synthesis and Cross-Linking Properties of Melamine Formaldehyde Oligomers with Peroxy Groups

Melamine formaldehyde oligomers with peroxy groups (MFOP) have been synthesized based on melamine or urea and melamine in the presence of tert-butyl peroxymethanol or tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Zinc oxide was used as a catalyst. The effect of peroxide nature, ratio of the starting components and process time on the characteristics and yield of MFOP has been studied. The structure of the synthesized MFOP was confirmed by IR- and PMR-spectroscopy. The chemistry of the cross-linked structures formation was studied.

Synthesis and Structure of Urea-Formaldehyde Oligomers with Peroxide Groups

The possibility of synthesis in the presence of tert-butyl peroxymethanol (TBPM) or tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) of urea-formaldehyde oligomers with peroxide groups (UFOP) has been considered. Zinc oxide was used as the reaction catalyst. The effect of the initial components ratio, the reaction temperature and the process time on the characteristics and yield of the obtained oligomers was studied. Methods for obtaining UFOP using a mixture of TBPM and TBHP as a component are proposed. The structure of the synthesized UFOP was confirmed by IR- and NMR-spectroscopic studies.

Production of Bitumen Modified with Low-Molecular Organic Compounds from Petroleum Residues. 1. Effect of Solvent Nature on the Properties of Petroleum Residues Modified with Folmaldehyde

The possibility of petroleum residues (tar and oxidized bitumen) modification with formaldehyde (37 % aqueous solution) has been studied at the temperature of 393±3 K for 3 h in the presence of organic solvent and using hydrochloric acid as a catalyst. Toluene, p-xylene, naphta solvent and n-octane were used as the solvents in the amount of 0–40 wt % relative to the initial material. By means of IR spectroscopy the resin-like compounds affecting the operational properties of petroleum residues have been detected.

KINETICS OF ALDOL CONDENSATION OF ACETIC ACID WITH FORMALDEHYDE ON B–P–V–W–Ox/SiO2 CATALYST

New catalysts B–P–V–W–Ox/SiO2 of gas-phase condensation of acetic acid from formaldehyde to acrylic acid on an industrial carrier of stable chemical composition (colloidal silicon oxide, Aerosil A-200) were synthesized. It is shown that the hydrothermal treatment of the carrier allows to increase the activity and selectivity of the catalyst in the reactions of aldol condensation of acetic acid with formaldehyde.

IMPACT OF WEATHER FACTORS ON THE SPEED OF THE REACTION OF FORMALDEHYDE FORMATION ABOVE MOTORWAY OVERPASSES

he analysis of the actual air condition in the city of Kyiv in the areas of big overpasses and crossroads shows that the average annual concentration of formaldehyde more than 3 times exceeds the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of this toxic substance. One of the most powerful sources of  formaldehyde formation in the air of the city is motor vehicles. The role of weather factors in formaldehyde formation rate (K) depending on capacity of emissions of internal combustion engines has been analyzed in this article.

Studies on cardanol-based epoxidized novolac resin and its blends

Cardanol-based novolac-type phenolic resin was synthesized with a mole ratio 1.0:0.5 of cardanol-to-formaldehyde using a dicarboxylic acid catalyst such as succinic acid. The cardanol-based novolac-type phenolic resin may further be modified by epoxidation with epichlorohydrin excess at 393 K in a basic medium to duplicate the performance of such phenolic-type novolacs. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer (CTBN) has been studied by various researches with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DEGBA) epoxy resin and epoxidized phenolic novolac resins.

Iron Molybdate Catalyst Stabilized by Calcium Oxide for Methanol to Formaldehyde Conversion

Regularities of methanol oxidation by atmospheric oxygen on the catalyst Fe2(MoO4)3/MoO3/CaO = 1 : 0.7 : 0.3 have been studied. It was found that the speed of the process in a model flow reactor obeys the first order equation with the observed rate constant of 1.0 sec1 and the apparent activation energy of 65 kJ/mol. It was established that the selectivity of formaldehyde in the process with once-through conversion over 45 % sharply decreases.

Photocatalytic Oxidation of Formaldehyde Vapour Using Amorphous Titanium Dioxide

The gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde over illuminated amorphous titanium dioxide was investigated using a model flow reactor with the following experimental conditions: 0.1–0.5 l/min flow rate and an organic compound concentration range of 0.006–0.082 mol/m3. Mathematical model of the process which includes two sequential stages: formation of formic acid and its subsequent oxidation to CO2 was offered.