The article presents the modeling mechanism of the error determination when making financial decisions in conditions of uncertainty and risk. Researched modeling is based on using the assessing of the diagnosed level of enterprises' economic security with help of mathematical description and calculations of probability transitions matrix and using the research method, the method of direct and reverse interpolation, averaging, statistical and index method, root mean square error method, simulation modeling, probability theory method, matrix method, etc. It has been studied that the most di
In applied geodesy tasks, it may be necessary to determine spatial angles. When bringing a 3D design of buildings and structures to the field with the help of an electronic total station (ES), it is important to verify the spatial angles between different elements of building structures such as roof overlaps, inclined anchors, and more, using the characteristic points' spatial coordinates. Modern geodetic instruments provide sufficiently high measurement accuracy (up to 1" and 1 mm, respectively).
The article is devoted to the causes, types and consequences of false criminalization. One of the problems with the criminalization of socially dangerous acts is that various factors can lead to incorrect or so-called erroneous criminalization. Its types are: 1) unjustified criminalization; 2) excessive criminalization; 3) incomplete criminalization; 4) incorrect criminalization. Unjustified (unjustified) criminalization is the recognition of an act as a criminal offense, which is not characterized by sufficient for criminalization nature and degree of harm (danger).
Sensors with a frequency output signal are marked as particularly high accuracy, it is easy to switch, and signals may be transmitted over long distances. The main element of such sensors is an electromechanical oscillator connected to the feedback of the autogenerator. String metal oscillators do not provide the required measurement accuracy due to unsatisfactory elasticity, hysteresis, relaxation, and drift of characterisrics. The creation of oscillators made of quartz and silicon due to the perfection of these materials, is difficult.
The current state of development of the metrological provision of measuring equipment for the competitiveness of products, safety at work (radiation safety), obtaining objective diagnostic information in medical practice is analyzed. Metrological support is one of the main steps in the production process that influences the measurement results and their qualitative evaluation.
The article focuses on the main problems of metrological confirmation of measuring instruments in accordance with international requirements and considers possible directions of their solution. One of the main tasks of metrology is assurance of the uniformity of measurements, that is, the state of measurements, in which their results are expressed in the legal units, and the characteristics of errors or uncertainty of measurements are known with a certain probability and do not exceed the established limits.
Digital frequency synthesizers are widely used in various fields of technology. Their main advantages, compared to analog devices, are the accuracy of output signal, resistance to external factors, reliability and high performance. Their structures include the digital storage device (accumulative adder) and a comparison scheme. Basing the latest the two-level digital frequency synthesizers are developed. They are the subset of digital frequency synthesizers, in which the output signals are two-levelled.
This work is devoted to the issues of processing holes in different thickness of tubular billets great length deforming broaching. The urgency of this problem is substantiated. The results of studying the regularities of deformation of a material in the deformation zone under deforming broaching are presented. The reasons for the formation of this type of geometric error as the curvature of the axis of the machined hole are established.
The results of researching the techniques for natural gas properties determination for flow rate and volume metering systems are presented in the paper. The necessity of developing techniques for calculating the isentropic exponent of natural gas for pressure up to 25 MPa based on a simplified set of parameters of gas composition is shown.
The analysis of the histological and cytological images characteristics and automated biomedical images processing systems is provided. The structure of "contour-contour" transformation error and it evaluation is explored. A computer experiments of contours transformation error evaluation is done based on cytological images example.