The article is deals with the actual problem of borrowings in the Ukrainian financial and economic terminology, in particular the issue of lexical and grammatical adaptation, transliteration, spelling of borrowed terms. Specific attention is focused on anglicisms which actively penetrate into the Ukrainian language due to the restructuring of the national market economy, and on their proper adaptation using means of the native language.
“Financial and economic dictionary” by A. Zahorodniy and H. Voznyuk containing the interpretation of over 10,000 terms in the field of financial and credit relations, money circulation budgetary regulation and the stock market served as the source base for the study.
On the basis of the researched material, three main ways of adapting borrowed names of scientific terms to the norms of the Ukrainian language were singled out, such as:
- Lexical adaptation. As a result of lexical adaptation the system is replenished either with the Ukrainian one-word term that enters the synonymic relations with the borrowed one, or with the own language component of the composite term. The compilers of “Financial and economic dictionary”, A. Zahorodniy and H. Voznyuk, have offered their own equivalents for both anglicisms and Russian borrowings.
- Morphemic adaptation. It provides various combinations of the native language and borrowed root and affixed morphemes, as well as combined composites complicated with affixation.
- Grammatical adaptation. We mean declension of most of borrowed terminological units according to the known language paradigms, and granting the meaning of gender to the indeclinable nouns-terms.
- Spelling adaptation, which represents an initial, minimal level of foreign language lexeme adaptation. The process of spelling adaptation of borrowings is being hampered due to the imperfection of the current orthography. The lack of a transparent system of orthographic processing of borrowings causes the loss of image for the language in general.
It is emphasized that the revival of our terminology, particularly in the financial and economic area, cleaning it of different mechanically copied or calked hybrids does not deny the natural process of the internationalization of Ukrainian terminology, permanent correlation with European languages. The normal process of language development through borrowings enables Ukrainian terminology natural fitting into the international scientific, technical, economic, social and political context.