Density model of the Earth crust of the Ukrainian Carpathians along the PANCAKE profile
Received: September 15, 2022
Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas, Carpathian Branch of Subbotin Institute of Geophysics of NAS of Ukraine
Carpathian Branch of Subbotin Institute of Geophysics of NAS of Ukraine
Carpathian Branch of Subbotin Institute of Geophysics of NAS of Ukraine

The purpose of the work is the analysis and geological-tectonic interpretation of the anomalous gravity field of the Ukrainian Carpathians and adjacent territories, as well as the construction of a density model of the Earth's crust and upper mantle according to the international PANCAKE seismic profile. The need to build a density model along the PANCAKE profile is due to the significant interest of a number of geologists and geophysicists in the results of seismic research along this profile. It is also caused by certain discrepancies in the seismological models of different authors. The gravity modeling technique, used in the work, includes the analysis of geological-geophysical maps and models. They are related to the geological-tectonic structure of the research region, to the creation of the initial structural part of the model and to the determination of the densities of strata and blocks of the model. The geometry and densities of the model are refined by the selection method, which is based on the interactive solution of the direct problem of gravimetric and the analysis of the reasons for the inconsistency of the calculated gravity field and Bouguer anomalies. A qualitative correspondence of the density model to the tectonic interpretation of the seismic section along the PANCAKE profile was achieved by using the methods of gravity modeling. The modelling results confirm the four-layer structure of the Earth's crust: the sedimentary cover, the upper, middle, and lower parts of the crust, which differ significantly in density. There is also evidence of the difference of the ALCAPA lithospheric plate, Flysch Carpathians and Precambrian Craton in Earth's crust and upper mantle structure. The ALCAPA plate is characterized by a small thickness (up to 29 km) and a low density of the Earth's crust. The density of the ALCAPA upper mantle is lower (3.20-3.21×103 kg/m3) compared to the upper mantle under the Ukrainian Carpathians and the East European Craton (3.28-3.30×103 kg/m3). This may be related to a change of a mantle composition and increased heat flow under ALCAPA. The Ukrainian fragment of the East European craton in the PANCAKE profile zone is characterized by a typical thickness of the crust (~41-45 km). The upper part of the crystalline crust, in contrast to the middle (2.86-2.90×103 kg/m3) and the lower part (2.98-3.10×103 kg/m3), is characterized by a lower density and greater differentiation in horizontal direction and with depth (from 2.66×103 kg/m3 to 2.86×103 kg/m3). The complex transition zone (subduction zone, Carpathian Orogen) between the ALCAPA microplate and the East European Craton causes an intense negative Bouguer anomaly – the Carpathian gravity minimum, which reaches -90×10-5 m/s2. It has a complex nature: Neogene and Paleogene-Cretaceous flysch rocks low density (≤2.50×103 kg/m3) of the Boryslav-Pokuttia cover, the main huge Precarpathian sub-vertical fault (>4 km) on the extreme southwestern slope of the platform (relatively local factors) and significant deepening of the MOHO surface under the Carpathian structure (regional factor). According to our density model, the depth of the MOHO under the front of the Carpathian thrust reaches 56 km.

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