Institutional and economic mechanism of providing the innovation development of society under the process of formation of technoglobalizm

Received: September 24, 2015
Accepted: September 24, 2015
Chernyavska O.I.

SHEE «Vadуm Hetman Kyiv National Economic University»

The article is devoted to the research of economic and institutional mechanisms that stimulate science, technologies and innovations. On the basis of the analysis of  main features of global technological development at the present stage, the author researched the activity of international institutions like the UNO which could be effective in solving global problems of technological development and also discovered the institutional providing of innovation activity under extending technoglobalism and as the main condition of sustainable economic development.

The author has revealed a contradictory character of consequences of technoglobalism and also analyzed its several basic forms in which this process developed in the end of  ХХ and at the beginning of ХХІ centuries. Thus, development of technoglobalism is of use for most countries, as revolutionary technologies cause less harm to the environment than the technologies which were resource-intensive and contaminated the environment. At the same time a lot of countries, especially developing, are often deceived and place production facilities dangerous for the environment on their territories. As we know, technoglobalism changed not only scales and pattern of production in the developed industrial countries but also had noticeable global influence on quality of life, mutual relations of people and their attitude towards environment. At the same time, powerful potential of new scientific and technical achievements is not always used for the benefit of mankind. However, in spite of that today the mankind doesn’t have other alternative except subsequent intensification of process of global technological development because of the gradual exhaustion of present natural resources, growth of planet population and ecological problems.

One of modern features of formation of technoglobalism is deepening the global problems of technological development, i.e. contradiction between society and nature represented by the contradiction of scientific and technological progress, which is the source of such problems. That is why in the end of the ХХth century sharp necessity to minimize the technogenic impact of human civilization on environment appeared, above all, applying resource saving, ecologically clean and waste-free technologies in industry; introduction of new types of alternative energy; use of hybrid transport and technologies of clean car etc.

So, the newest achievements and results of modern scientific and technological progress became key to economic development and contributed to the deepening of globalization processes, especially in a scientific and technological sphere. Change to the new technological method of production, to high, science-intensive technologies, rapid and wide distribution of information communication technologies, which will eliminate barriers on the way to movement of commodities, services, capitals are basic motive forces, which stipulate the process of globalization, both economic and technological in particular. From the initial stage of origin of technoglobalism powerful technical and technological changes took place in different industries of national economy, its structure and principles of placing productive forces of society (the rates of their development were considerably accelerated) changed and resulted in a considerable economic revival in the developed industrial countries. In world economic development a transition took place gradually from the capitalism of «free competition» to the monopolistic one. The process of concentration of capital in sectors of heavy industry resulted in creation of large industrial objects. This period was characterized by formation of world currency and credit markets, the international division of labor increased, the importance and intensity of the international trade grew sharply, especially in technology-intensive industries. Thus, revolutionary transformations in the sphere of science and technology gradually gained global character. More and more often the key role of technological factor is noticed in the process of the economy growth of most countries in the world.

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