It is proved that the development of the world economy is closely linked to the accelerated pace of scientific and technological progress and intellectual capital. Many countries are on the path of intensifying their economy, choosing a benchmark for the innovative model of economic development. In the article the necessity of innovations and technological changes as the main factor for innovative development is considered. The ideas, theories and concepts that theoretically proved influential nature and value of innovations and technological changes for economic growth are considered. The basic innovations and development of the respective innovative market niches are not possible without the active support of the state. Long legal documents of the government only declare direction of its powerful scientific and technological policy.
There is proposed and carried out the innovations analysis of Ukrainian economy through international indexes. They assess scientific and technological innovations and competitiveness as well as their ranking; the possibilities of Ukraine to develop new technologies and innovations; determine negative trends that threaten national security and technological inefficiency of government actions; evaluate the state of innovations in Ukraine. It is possible to identify the factors that hinder introduction of new achievements. There exist problems of low innovation activity of enterprises and high risks that hinder raising capital in high-tech sectors. Another problem concerns financing innovations of domestic enterprises and organizations, their sources and overall dynamics.
The article outlines the positive trends that show scientific personnel growth potential and the effectiveness of their work. This helps to increase the personnel own innovations and technological level. There is analyzed the quality of scientific research personnel, the ability of research institutions to carry out research work. The questions of motivating the staff of academic institutions and state funding of research are considered.
The effectiveness of scientific and technological entities and scientific research and technological capabilities of the national economy are analyzed in international terms. The indicators of economic, institutional, environment and information and communication technologies in Ukraine are analyzed. Assessment of scientific and technological sphere of the Ukrainian economy is made.
The main problems of the national economy concerning technological changes are highlighted: imperfection of the legislative framework for innovation and technological development; unfavorable economic and institutional regime for the development of innovative economy; the dominance of low-tech sectors of national production; the predominance of production of the 3rd and 4th modes; weak state support of high-tech innovation and resource-saving technologies; low investment research works; weak cooperation between enterprises and research organizations engaged to develop innovative products; low efficiency of research institutions; reduction of scientific and engineering staff and the number of specialists who perform scientific and technical work; declining interest of private companies to innovate; the risk of significant cost of innovative products and little demand for innovative goods and services; reduction in financing innovations at domestic enterprises own expense.
It is proposed that priority areas of innovation and technological changes in the society should be as follows: structural changes in the organizations related to the actions of competitors during the market launch of new products; innovation and technological change for new technologies; changes in production technologies based on new products that can lead to the formation of the new market demand and expand its capacity; socio-economic changes in the methods of work organization, management technologies, methods of social dialogue; institutional changes in the corporate culture; introduction of a new management style for new forms of employees motivation; application of new ways of organizing work and rest, staff training and development; innovative structural changes; transformation of organizational structure; change in the system of authority and responsibility; elimination of inefficient and creation of new organizational units; change of control systems and more.
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