Ethno-political separatist conflict is a feature of modern international relations and a potential threat to global security. The number of such conflicts is growing and the danger of their aggravation remains an urgent problem, thus, studing the possibilities of solving them is an important task. The concept of ethno-political separatist conflict integrates two terms of the Western science: “self-determination conflict” and “separatist conflict”. Such conflicts arise from the desire for self-determination, including political, cultural, national self-determination, partial (autonomy) or full secession. It is also argued that the conflict in Ukraine is not a separatist but pseudo-separatist one. Territorial approach to the settlement of ethno-political separatist conflicts can be the most effective because it is difficult to resolve such conflicts using other mechanisms: they deal only with secondary effects while it is important to solve the core problem of the conflict. U. Schneckener’s classification of mechanisms of ethno-political conflicts settlement is considered. The main attention is focused on the mechanisms of recognition of ethnic differences which include territorial solutions. The various types of territorial mechanisms, including external (requirements of independence and unification with another state (by S. Wolff), secession, dissolution (by U. Schneckener)) and internal (autonomy, federation) are studied. The scientists’ views on the ability of territorial approach to solve ethno-political conflicts are considered. The possible negative (H. Hale, P. Roeder, D. Treisman) and positive (T. Gurr, S. Saideman, D. Rothchild, C. Hartzell) consequences of territorial approach application are studied. Territorial mechanisms are also analyzed according to the criteria of efficiency. Territorial approach aims at eliminating causes of ethno-political separatist conflicts that is why it can be effective in their settlement and enable to remove tension between parties. However, today territorial mechanisms are used insufficiently. Typically, one party of the conflict tries to avoid their use or provides insufficient level of self-government for another party. Therefore, it is necessary to involve supranational institutions as objective participants of a conflict in the process of settlement.
1. Bolotnikova O. R. Problemyi uregulirovaniya etnopoliticheskih separatistskih konfliktov v XXI veke : Avtoref. dis... kand. polit. nauk: 23.00.04 / O. R. Bolotnikova ; Nats. issl. un-t «Vyisshaya Shkola Ekonomiki». – M., 2012. – 31 s.; 2. Kymlichka V. Liberalizm i prava menshyn / V. Kymlichka; per. z anhl. R Tkachuk; hol. red. i avtor peredm. Dzh. Perlin; nauk. red. I. Lyzohub. –Kh.: Tsentr osvitnikh initsiatyv, 2001. – 176 s.; 3. Kisse A. Polityko-pravovi zasady upravlinnia etnichnym konfliktom : Avtoref. dys... d-ra polit. nauk: 23.00.05 / A. Kisse ; Instytut derzhavy i prava im. V. M. Koretskoho NAN Ukrainy. – K., 2006. – 32 s.; 4. Panibudlaska V. Etnopolitychnyi separatyzm – poniattia, zmist, formy i pryroda / Volodymyr Panibudlaska // Naukovi zapysky instytutu politychnykh i etnonatsionalnykh doslidzhen im. I. F. Kurasa NAN Ukrainy. – K., 2009. –Vyp. 44 : Kurasivski chytannia-2009. – S. 306-313; 5. Cornell S. E. Autonomy as a Source of Conflict: Caucasian Conflictsin Theoretical Perspective / S. E. Cornell // World Politics.– 2002. – № 54 (2). – R. 245 276; 6. Gurr T. Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflicts / T. Gurr. – Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1993; 7. Hale H. E. Divided We Stand: Institutional Sources of Ethnofederal State Survival and Collapse / H. E. Hale // World Politics. –2004.–№ 56. – P. 165-193; 8. McGarry J. Territorial Approaches to Ethnic Conflict Settlement / J. McGarry, B. O’Leary // The Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict, K. Cordell, S. Wolff (eds). – London: Routledge, 2011. – R. 249-265; 9. Roeder P. G. Where Nation-States Come From: Institutional Change in the Age of Nationalism / P.G. Roeder. – Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007; 10. Rothchild D. Security in Deeply Divided Societies: The Role of Territrial Autonomy / D. Rothchild, S. Hartzell // Identity and Territorial Autonomy in Plural Societies, W. Safran and R. Máiz (eds). – London: Frank Cass, 2000. – P. 254-271; 11. Saideman S. M. Democratization, Political Institutions, and Ethnic Conflict: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis, 1985–1998 / S. M. Saideman, D. J. Lanoue, M. Campenni S. Stanton // Comparative Political Studies. – 2002. – № 35(1). – P. 103-129; 12. Schneckener U. Models of Ethnic Conflict Regulation: The Politics of Recognition / U. Schneckener // Managing and Settling Ethnic Conflicts, U. Schneckener and S. Wolff (eds). – London: Hurst, 2004. – P. 18-39; 13. Treisman D. S. The Architecture of Governmet: Rethinking Political Decentralization / D. S. Treisman. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007; 14. Wolff S. Approaches to Conflict Resolution in Divided Societies / S. Wolff // Ethnopolitics papers, Exeter centre for ethno-political studies. – Exeter: Univ. Of Exeter, 2010. – № 5. – 38 r.