Production of Bitumen Modified with Low-Molecular Organic Compounds from Petroleum Residues. 3. Tar Modified with Formaldehyde

The chemical modification of tar with formaldehyde as 37% aqueous solutionhas been studied in the presence of the catalysts. Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide and acid tar were used as the catalysts. The effect of the catalyst nature and amount, as well as temperature, process time and initial components ratio on the softening point, penetration, brittle point and adhesion to crushed stone has been determined. The structure of the modified tars was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. The structural-group composition was determined.

Influence of Initiators on the Adhesion Properties of Bitumen Modified by Natural Origin Epoxide

The article is presenting a modification of bituminous binder with ecological epoxidized rapeseed oil (BERO) in the presence of the initiator (hardener). Adipic acid (AA), maleic anhydride (MA) and polyethylene polyamine (PEPA) were used as the initiators. The effect of modification temperature and, as well as initiator nature, on the bitumen properties was determined. Bitumen modified with BERO was evaluated by the following indicators: softening temperature, penetration, ductility, and adhesion to the glass.

Slurry Surfacing Mixes on the Basis of Bitumen Modified with Phenol-Cresol-Formaldehyde Resin

Slow-breaking monophase cationic bitumen emulsions have been produced on the basis of bitumen modified with phenol-cresol-formaldehyde resin (PhCR-F). Bitumen emulsions were used as a binder for thin-layer coatings with slurry surfacing mixes (SSM). Physical and technical parameters of modified and unmodified emulsions were determined and analyzed. The optimal compositions of SSM were selected according to the breaking criterion. The values of SSM wet track abrasion were determined.

Research of the influence of modified polyethyleneaminoguanidine derivatives on composites properties on polypropylene based

 The properties of the filled polymer compositions largely depend on the nature and surface properties of the fillers- basalt fiber. The possibility of modifying the surface of the basalt fiber with commercial polyhexamethyleneguanidinehydrochloride and non-commercial polydiethyleneaminoguanidine - appretes, were demonstrated for the first time.

Effect of Phenol-Cresol-Formaldehyde Resin on Adhesive and Physico-Mechanical Properties of Road Bitumen

The phenol-cresol-formaldehyde resin (PhCR-F) obtained from phenolic fraction of coal tar has been synthesized via the polycondensation method of “raw” phenols with formaldehyde. The modification of road bitumen by this resin was carried out. PhCR-F in different concentrations was found to be effectively used as a modifier of road bitumen. It was shown that PhCR-F is an effective adhesive additive for road bitumen. The structural types of the oxidized and modified bitumen were determined according to the group-chemical composition and calculated criteria.

Production of Bitumen Modified by Petroleum Resins on the Basis of Tars of Ukrainian Oils

Experimental results concerning main regularities of paraffin tar and petroleum resins joint oxidation are presented. It has been shown that petroleum resin in the amount of 5 mas % as raw material component allows to intensify oxidation and improve operational characteristics of obtained bitumen.

Bitumen Production via Tar Oxidation in the Presence of Petroleum Resin with Fluorine-Containing Groups

The tar oxidation process has been studied at 523 K, air flow rate of 2.0; 2.5 and 5.0 h-1 and process time of 6, 9 and 12 h in the presence of 2.5; 5.0 and 7.5 mas % (to calculate for the raw material)of petroleum resin with fluorine atoms. The tar is the residue of black oil vacuum distillation obtained from the oils of Western-Ukrainian fields. The effect of process conditions on the characteristics of obtained bitumen has been determined. The structural-group composition of blown bitumen has been examined.

Polymers as Natural Nanocomposites. 2. The Comparative Analysis of Reinforcement Mechanisms

The complete similarity of reinforcement degree behaviour has been shown for nanocomposite epoxy polymer/Na+-montmorillonite and polyarylate, which is considered as the natural nanocomposite. The polyarylate structure description is given within the framework of cluster model of polymers amorphous state structure. The interfacial adhesion level influences strongly the reinforcement degree of indicated materials.

Polymers as Natural Nanocomposites. 3. The Geometry of Intercomponent Interactions

The treatment of amorphous glassy polymers as natural nanocomposites is proposed. It has been shown that the geometry of intercomponent interactions nanoclusters – loosely-packed matrix defines adhesion level between the indicated components of natural nanocomposites. Since nanoclusters – loosely-packed matrix contact is realized over cylindrical surface of the first ones then the larger the indicated surface area the higher the intercomponent adhesion level.