Modern Ukrainian terminology of construction and architecture represents a compound term involving the constituent elements (parts) structures, such as foundations, walls, frames, floors, roofs, coverings, staircases, windows [5, p. 15]. In our exploration we consider term-words combinations associated with coating facilities, including the structural constructive part of buildings – arch. Note that numerous dictionaries give different interpretations of the term. For example, "Dictionary of Foreign Words", edited by O. Melnychuk gives the notion of arch as 'an element of buildings, engineering structures for curved ceilings or openings in the wall spans between supports' [12, p. 67], at the same timewe find a somewhat different explanation in the "Dictionary of the Ukrainian language in the 11-volume" and the "Dictionary" by Bibik S. and G. Syuty. They are the following: 'vaults in the form of curves, which cover the opening in the wall or pillar bridge connecting two adjacent houses' [13, p. 60, 2, p. 52]. Instead, "Glossary of Architectural Terms" gives the semantics of the term arch as 'curvilinear overlapping apertures in the wall or run between two struts (columns, pillars, etc.)" [15, p. 1]. It should be noted that in modern terminology we may find many compound terms that specify the main component of the arch because "in the name of the main structure of the compound word conveys general features (categorical values) as dependent components – species (points to the specific characteristics of phenomena and processes, things)" [3, p. 97].
The purpose of the proposed paper is to identify and analyze term-word phrases, which include the component arch. The relevance of the research is that in the modern Ukrainian terminology the component "arch" has not yet been the subject of a separate study.
In modern terminological dictionaries [1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15] there are presented two-, three-and even four components phrases with the term of arch. However, the largest group consists of two-word phrases which are combined in subordinate bond. In particular, a noun phrase consisting of a noun in the Nominative Case and an adjective (participle). Thus we divide the term-word combinations under study according to the onomasiological feature that provides additional information on how to specify the component arch. Specifically dependent component indicates:
▪ constructive solution – detachable arch, composite arch;
▪ static scheme – inarticulate arch, two-hinged arch, monoarticulated arch, polyarticulated arch, arch hinge;
▪ number of runs – multispan arch, baulk arch;
▪ type material – wooden arch, plank arch, concrete arch;
▪ external structure – lattice arch, solid arch;
▪ type design – quoin arch, arch apparent (false);
▪ shape axis – multicentered arch, two-centered arch, elliptical arch, circular arch (compressed), round arch, semiround arch, parabolic arch, semicircular arch, lancet arch, triple-centred arch;
▪ type of form – Arabian arch, multirotary arch, built-in arch, concave arch, fan-shaped arch, cuspidated arch, birotary arch, bow-shaped arch, reversed arch, dented arch, carinate arch, bast arch, angle arch, lanceolate arch, Moorish arch, mytrova arch, oval arch, single-centred arch, convex-concave arch, perspective arch, suspended arch, horseshoe arch, sublime arch, late Gothic arch, flat arch, branching arch, curtain arch, oblique arch, obtused arch, sickled arch, compressed arch, step arch, three-bladed arch;
▪ purposes – decorative arch, diagonal arch, zaplichna arch, cantilever arch, frontal arch, memorial arch, bridge arch, bearing arch, inverted (overturned) arch, subresilient arch, unloading arch, bearing arch, a triumphal arch, fronton arch, royal arch, overhanging arch.
In the Ukrainian terminology of construction and architecture there is a small number of core component term-words combinations of arch composed of three/four components. The formation of multicomponent terms, according to A. Petukhov, occurs mainly due to the development of a science, “new industry-specific concepts that are difficult to transfer as a compact phrase or a term" [4, p. 45]. Terms and phrases under analysis are observed in the diversity of patterns. In particular, from among the ternary of term-woed combinations two types of terms are found. The first type are the terms in which the main component is term-word arch. Among them we distinguish the following types:
1) term-word in which the dependent components specify the term arch “continuing or completing the process of classifying concept” [14, p. 85] (structural model [n.(NC)]+adj.+adj.). Eg., Attributive specifying components:
▪ type of form – [arch] double cuspidated;
▪ shape axis – [arch] symmetric circular.
As noted by L. Garashchenko, three-component time – phrases under study occur "as a result of complications of two-component structures through further specification that is connected to the definition of the word signified in pointing out the concept of diversity, called the phrase" [3, p. 100].
2) term-word formed by combination of two two-component combinations of core words arch (structural model [n.(NC)]+adj.+adj. (Pariciple 11)←[them.]+n.+[n.(N.C.)]+adj. (Participle 11.)). These terms indicate that the component attribute different characteristics, properties, in particular definition:
▪ external structure and the static schema (+lattice arch or arch lattice→multiarticulated latticed arch);
▪ material and static circuit (wooden arch+latticed arch→multiarticulated wooden arch);
▪ material and type of construction (wood + Arch Arch Arch → Glued laminated timber);
▪ shape and type of axis (circular arch+flat arch→circular flat; circular arch+flat arch→flat circular arch, lancet arch+high arch→lancet raised arch ; lancet arch+arch suspended→lancet suspended arch).
Note that the terminology dictionaries fix also isolated instances of ternary terms established by the structural model [n.(NC)]+prep.+n.(AC) – [arch] on the farm. Onomasiological feature of this term-word combination contains seme 'type design'.
As for four-word terms, the dictionaries record a small number of such. From among these we find such phrases in which the main component is the word arch, such as a model [n.(NC)]+prep.+n.(OC)+n.(GC) – [arch] in the form of a trefoil. Onomasiological feature of this compound term contains seme 'type of form'. Note that the terminology of modern construction and architecture is characterized by the use of multi-terms, which include the terms and term-word combinations as "the use of multi-term phrases is explained by the desire to provide a term that refers to a new concept, greater semantic precision" [3, p. 100]. For example, we find structural models [n.]+prep.+[adj.+n.(AC)] – [arch] of [solid wall] and [n.]+prep.+[n.(AC)+n.(GC)] – [arch] of [beam stiffness] [arch] of [beam shtyvnosti]. Note that these multi termcombinations specify the kind of the structure.
Consequently, in modern construction and architecture terminology a large number of terms is represented with the phrases component "arch", the vast majority of them are two-component, formed by the structural model n.(NC)+adj. (Participle 11) (more than 80 items). For multicomponent terms, the design of this type is less productive, including dictionary record of basically a phrase structural model n.(NC)+adj.+adj. (Participle11) (9 terms), a feature of which is that the dependent components specify a specific sign, the property / point to various features of term arch. Presented as isolated occurrences of prepositional structure termcombinations – n.(NC)+prep.+n.(AC); n.(NC)+prep.+adj.+n.(AC); n.(NC)+prep.+n.(OC)+n.(GC); n.(NC)+prep.+n.(AC)+n.(GC). It should be noted that the basis for the creation of multi-term phrases may be not only termcomponent arch, but also two-word combinations.